5. WORKPLACE DESIGNWorkplace Design: includes the consideration of factors such as building layout, use of signs, locks, physical barriers, lighting, security, electronic surveillance, the positioning of furniture, use of access key cards, minimizing the number of workplace entrances, designated safe zones for emergency situations, panic buttons, alarms, etc. Gilbert, E (2019).According to the World Health Organization, every citizen of the world has the right to healthy and safe work; a right to a work environment that enables him or her to live a socially and economically productive life. Healthy work environments have both direct and indirect impacts on patient safety. Healthy work environments have been linked to increased nurse and health care worker retention, recruitment, job satisfaction and have decreased stress and burnout, which subsequently leads to safer patient practices. Emergency Nurses Association. ( 2013)Nurses go to work each day to provide excellent patient care, achieve quality outcomes and make a positive difference. They don’t expect to be victims of violence from patients, family members or visitors and certainly not from their co-workers. But they sometimes are. Violence perpetrated by patients, their family members or visitors often escalates from stressful events that can quickly spiral out of control. Nurses are familiar with situations like these, and current research tells us they’re increasing. TV and print media report stories of gun violence and domestic disputes finding their way into workplaces, and troubled patients making hospitals more dangerous. Studies show violence is more likely to fester in unhealthy, negative work environments, so it’s up to leaders to make environments as healthy and positive as possible. Eileen Williamson, 2017.Nurse.com, Workplace violence: Nurses should not be afraid to go to work.6. REPORTING AND MANAGEMENT OF THE INCIDENCEWhenever an act of workplace violence rocks an organization to its core, there are almost always people who come out of the woodwork remembering prior incidents leading to the tragedy. Fortunately most workplace violence does not result in tragedy, shootings, or death. Fighting, harassments, threats or inappropriate behaviour are some of the many acts that go unreported and lead to more serious incidents. Fredrickson, C (2014).According to Fredrickson, C ( 2014) there are the top seven reasons employees do not report workplace violence; Fear of Retaliation where employees are dealing with a bully in the workplace or a very angry co-worker and while they don’t like it, many are afraid to ‘turn the person in’ or ‘report the situation’ for fear of retaliation to themselves, their families or their co-workers. Becoming the ‘Office Snitch’. Fear of their Supervisor’s Reaction. Lack of Company Procedures/Policies. Lack of Training.Reporting is an important measure for addressing workplace violence; it allows the WPV prevention program to identify trends and problem areas within the hospital and to develop appropriate interventions to prevent WPV. It is important that WPV prevention programs address and acknowledge reports received from employees, so employees know that the sharing of their concerns is valued and that management has an interest in correcting the reported concern. It has been well established in the occupational health community that when employees feel that there is a real benefit to a safe action, they are more likely to engage in that safety-oriented action; when they believe there is no real benefit, they are much less likely to engage the safety system. Arezes & Miguel, 2006; Village & Ostry, 2010. Cited in Blando, J et al. 20157. MONITORING AND EVALUATIONPolicy evaluation is mainly focused on achievement of policy goals, incidents of violence should be reported to evaluate the difference between these incidents before and after policy development and application. In addition, the policy may need additional modifications based on the on-going policy evaluation. The evaluation process will stop when achieving all of policy goals. Ahmad, R. (2016).According to the report by An organization cannot evaluate effectiveness without measuring indicators. Measuring and evaluating your program is vital in guiding program improvement. Evaluation is a critical component of a workplace violence prevention program to determine the program’s effectiveness and highlight opportunities to enhance the program.2 The set of indicators should be comprehensive, include both leading and lagging indicators from Qualitative and Quantitative sources, and enable performance measurement and reporting at the provincial and the local level.7.1 Goals of program evaluation:Create and maintain a safe working environment without the threat of violence. Review, revise, enhance and improve program components. Identify and implement corrective measures that may prevent subsequent violent situations. Modify the program when insufficiencies are identified in policies, procedures, and employee training/education.7.2 Quantitative sources of information:Violence reporting data, environmental assessment data and workplace inspection reports.7.3 Qualitative sources of information:Data from training evaluations, staff surveys, compliance auditsCONCLUSIONAs it has been seen that the issue of workplace violence does not only affect patients but the staff as well, it therefore; recommended that a holistic approached be used to eliminate violence at the workplace. American Nurses Association; Reporting Incidents of Workplace Violence Effective Date: 2019, recommends a multifaceted strategy to combat the significant issue of workplace violence. The first component of this strategy is promoting and instilling a culture of zero tolerance toward workplace violence. This shift must be officially stated in all health care workplace policies and procedures. No workplace should tolerate any type of violence against health care workers. To this end, American Nursing Association (ANA) recommends that Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) establish a unified standard for employers in health care and social assistance settings to mitigate the frequency and severity of workplace violence.Ling Tongshi 2019 .Workplace Violence in the Public Health Sector. In South Africa 61.9% of all health care workers in South Africa experienced at least one incident of physical or psychological workplace violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, racial harassment, sexual harassment) over the past 12 months. 135 respondents reported having been physically attacked in the workplace. Regarding psychological violence, 49.5% of health care workers reported having experienced incidents of verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing at 20.4%, racial harassment at 22.3% and sexual harassment at 4.6%.The information provided in this assignment indicates that there is a need for management in Health facilities to avail themselves in the daily activities of the working environment with the intention to combat workplace environment. It shows that employees as well as community member needs education on the need to fight workplace violence, how they can report its incidences and how they can protect themselves from it.REFERENCEAmerican Nurses Association (2019). Reporting Incidents of Workplace Violence. Ahmad, R.(2016). American Journal of Public Health Research. Vol 4 (2), pp 47-55. DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-4-2-2Pub. Date: February 26, 2016.Blando, J, Ridenour, M., Hartley, D, & Casteel, C. (2015). Barriers of effective implementation of programs for the prevention of workplace violence in hospitals. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-20-2015/No1-Jan-2015/ Articles-Previous-Topics/Barriers-to-Programs-for-the-Prevention-of-Workplace- Violence.html. By the Numbers (2015). Introducing New Workplace Violence Prevention Resources for Hospital, Community Care and Long Term Care Building your Workplace Violence Program : The Five Steps to Building your Workplace Violence Program.Eileen Williamson, 2017.Nurse.com, Workplace violence: Nurses should not be afraid to go to work.Sarah Handzel,(2017) Zero Tolerance: Stopping Nurse Bullying Begins With Leadership.Ling Tongshi (2019) .Workplace Violence in the Public Health Sector. Martinez A.J.S (2016). Journal of Psychosocial nursing. Vol. 54 (9).pp 2.Schlebusch L.W (2016). Workplace violence among professional nurses in a private healthcare facility.Master in Nursing. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.United States of America Department of Labour (2015). Caring for Our Care Giver. Preventing Workplace Violence: A Road Map for Healthcare Facilities. pp. 1.
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