SECTION THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY31 Research Approach

SECTION THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Research Approach The study will employ qualitative case study approach. Qualitative approach interprets the world from the point of views and perspectives of each individual in order to get the truth. Individuals are subjected to create their own meanings. Researchers do not attempt to understand an individual’s subjectivity as influenced by a particular condition (Given,2008).Case study approach will be used because is particularly appropriate for exploratory studies for discovering complex processes of why and how phenomenon from multiple participants and methods (Battacherjee,2012). This study is thus located in the pragmatic paradigm as Creswell (2003; 2008) argues that pragmatic knowledge is not grounded in one system of philosophy and reality and it opens the door to multiple methods and different world assumptions in the study.3.2 Study Design It is will be a Case study design using qualitative methods involving cases in the fields. Pandey & Pandey (2015) defines research design as simply the framework or plan for a study that is used as a guide in collecting and analyzing the data. It is a blueprint that is followed in completing a study. Research design is the blue print for collection measurement and analysis of data. Actually it is a map that is usually developed to guide the research.3.3 Methods of Data Collection The methods that will be used are focus group discussion, interview and questionnaire methods. Focus group discussion is simply a method that involves the discussion between participants or a respondent where by the researcher becomes the monitor of that discussion. Interview is a two way method which permits an exchange of ideas and information between the interviewer and interviewee. The questionnaire is a form prepared and distributed to secure responses to certain questions. It is a device for securing answers to questions by using a form which the respondent will fill in a systematic way (Pandey & Pandey, 2015).These methods will be employed because are the methods that help to get in-depth information, experiences and views of participants about the particular issue.3.4 Methods of Data analysis The method that will be used for data analysis is content analysis method. This consists of analyzing the themes and messages from documented information such as books, magazines, newspapers and the contents of verbal materials which can be spoken or printed. It is the mostly qualitative analysis method concerning the general message from the collected data.3.5 Description of the Study Area & Population Iringa rural district is one of the five districts located within Iringa region in Tanzania mainland. It has a population of about 250000 people as per 2012 Census Report National Bureau of Statistics Tanzania. It has a total number of 1495 for nursery & primary teachers in 146 primary schools and it has total number of 700 for public secondary schools in 29 secondary schools (http/:www.iringadc.go.tz/). 3.6 Sampling The simple random plus purposive sampling will be employed in the study. Simple random sampling provides equal chance to every individual in the population whereas the purposive sampling involves selection of cases in the field basing on the specific purpose by the researcher or its uniqueness to be studied. Now the sample size will be from Iringa district six selected secondary schools. The sampling will be 10 teachers per each school making a total number of 60 teachers, 6 head masters, and 60 students from 6 selected public secondary schools and 2 Education Officers of Iringa district. The total number will be 128 participants. 3.7Ethical Considerations In society, morals with the sense of ethical norms govern behavior of the society. The ethical norms are important in research for example to seek the truth, avoidance of error, trust, respect, fairness, copyright policies, human, rights, compliance with the law, safety and confidentiality (Resinik,2011).The researcher in this study will consider the principles that bring good social relationships in the society (Kothari,2004).Plagiarism will be avoided, the consent principle will be followed. The participants will be informed prior to the consent on research purpose, procedures, time, risks, benefits, and a note stipulating that participation is voluntary (Halai,2006). The researcher will also consider the principles of privacy and confidentiality when collecting data as Mauch & Park (2003) recommend to collect data anonymously and keeping sensitive files in privacy. RE

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