Social influences This refers to a change in behaviour as a result of another person’s actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. Social influences take the form of conformity, compliance or obedience. First, conformity is when the individual behaves more like others, this involves seeking the approval or friendship of others (Poljac et al., 2018). Second, compliance is when the individual acts as suggested by another person. Lastly, obedience involves doing what is asked by another person due to their authority. Family According to Fryberg et al. (2016), the family can influence an individual’s behaviour, values, and beliefs, and these correlate positively to the experiences of life. A research was done by Pound and Campbell (2015) on the significance of family interaction on the levels of stress and personality on adults revealed that people behave in a manner that resonates with their family so that they can continue gaining the approval of their family and feel wanted. In this case, Janet may behave in a certain way so that her family will continue to support her. More specifically, since she is receiving care at home, she might choose to engage in minimal activities and interact with the family members so that she will feel loved and accepted as she is. Peer groups An important source of information about ourselves comes from the peer group, the group we see as being like ourselves. This involves individuals who are of the same age as Janet. They may be her neighbors, friends or colleagues at work. Janet’s group of friends are having the same interests and hobbies as she has. They both like to go out for meal, travel together or even go to the gym. In the case, Janet used to love visiting her friends, and this seemed to be a big part of her social life. However, now that she is under care, she might not be able to keep up with her friends but to continue feeling loved she needs her friends. Summarizing, Janet should be cared at home because her friends would visit her more often than in the care home. Some of her friends might feel uncomfortable to visit her in the care home, which would have a negative impact on their contacts, and could even lead to the break of acquaintance.Media At present, the media is a significant social influence and plays a major role in shaping the character of many children, as well as adults. Today, there are many media outlets and social media sites that may exert pressure on Janet (Hirschi, 2017). People now have wider access to the Internet, social media or magazines. The influence of the media on Janet’s life is huge. Janet can’t participate actively in social life as soon as the disease progresses. However, the social media platform plays a vital role in Janet’s life by increasing social connection. She is able to communicate with friends and family, as well search for contacts with people suffering on MND like she. Therefore, I think that for this reason she should continue to live at home, because the family could help her in using the media.Prompt E:Functionalist theory According to Chng et al. (2018), the functionalist theory involves a societal system of interconnected parts that work together in harmony to maintain a state of social equilibrium. For instance, a family’s responsibility in the society is to reproduce, nurture and socialise the children, while education is meant to impart knowledge and skills into the children. Fletcher maintained that the functions of the family have increased in detail and importance. The family’s role in socialization is as important as ever, the family has a responsibility for the health and welfare of its members, and is a major consumer of goods and services.(J. Miller, 2015), Page 228. Functionalism believe that society is based on set of shared values and norms, which is known as value consensus. Regarding the theory, Janet became dysfunctional to the family because she ceased to fulfill her mother’s role. Her role in the family has been reversed because she can’t work anymore, as well as take care of her family and home. Now, she requires care. However, according to the functionalists, the family is the most important in fulfilling the stability and continuity of society, Janet should be cared at home. In this case. Janet requires proper care from her husband, support from her family and friends and also some professional assistance. The local NHS can provide some support, like equipment and help from community nurse or occupational therapist. Also, other family members can help look after Janet, and this will enable the continuity of the family. Janet will also feel secure surrounded by the family and they will fulfill their role in the society as the family.The conflict perspective This theory views society as containing parts that work together. These parts, unlike in the functionalist theory, states that society has different groups that mainly focus on their own interests, thus they compete for power and resources. The conflict theory originated from the Karl Marx’s classic works. Marx was of the opinion that these societies should be subjects of step by step economic development. Marx suggested the capitalist system whereby two classes of people could be created as a result of industrialization. The classes included the owners of factories and industries and the workers who earn wages. Under this theory, it is the owners of industries who benefit from the division of the society into two broad groups since many resources are available to wealthy owners while workers are denied access to these resources The rich try to stay rich by holding on to what they have by whatever means necessary (Stanley et al., 2016). Additionally, the wealthier can afford better care service because they have the means to pay for it, they can have private health care, they can pay for private specialist doctors and physiotherapists. While the poor or middle class may struggle to pay for care. In this case, Janet’s healthcare might be too expensive for her family, thus, the best option would be to get the required care at home. The symbolic theoryThis reflects the micro-sociological perspective. It emphasizes that human behaviour is influenced by meanings created and maintained through symbolic interaction with others. It conveys a sense of self, and how an individual sees themselves is how society treats them. In this case, symbols of illness include staying in a caring centre and maybe using a walking stick or a wheelchair (Joseph et al., 2016). As such, Janet may be perceived as very ill in a caring centre as compared to at home, where she can be in control of her life and still live a normal life. DOPISAC WIECEJPrompt E: Theory of loss This theory was established by Colin Murray Parkes, a British psychiatrist who believed that the model of loss can act as a reminder to people and that the behaviours in response to the loss are natural and also beneficial (Ford, 2016). According to Parkes, the patterns of mortality have changed over the last few centuries, and this has determined who grieves and how. Additionally, during these times, grief has been seen as a threat to both physical and mental health. Parker suggested that most people undergo various phases when experiencing loss. The individual does not often progress through these stages in a linear form; they may experience three or two aspects at once. Additionally, the stages are not fixed, in that, people do not often pass through them to recover from the loss. The four phases include numbness, searching, depression, and recovery (Congress, 2017). The moment of loss brings great distress, followed by feelings of numbness. This is soon followed by feelings of grief. When the levels of concentration fall, the individual starts to search for adopting behaviours that have been lost and the person who has experienced loss often becomes depressed. In this case, Janet has experienced loss in terms of her ability to work, travel with her husband, engage in sports activities and also visit her friends. As such, when receiving care in a care home, the social workers need to ensure that she does not feel pressurized to get on with things before she is ready. The care workers can utilise various skills when they notice that she is a different stage of her loss: empathy may be better to deal with upset or anger, whilst encouraging her to move on. Thus, Janet should receive care in a caring centre where professionals can be able to take her through the different stages of loss and help her recover. Psychosocial development by Erik EriksonAccording to Erik, an individual’s personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages, from infancy to adulthood. Each person undergoes a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative effect on the development of their personality (Stanley et al., 2016) For him, the crisis is of a psychosocial nature since they involve psychological needs of the person, and these needs conflict with those of the society. According to this theory, if an individual successfully completes each of the stages, they will experience a healthy personality, while failure to successfully complete these stages may lead to an unhealthy personality and sense of self. At Janet’s age, she is undergoing generativity vs stagnation period where she feels the need to leave a mark in the world. This can be accomplished by raising successful children, being productive at work and getting involved in community activities (Poljac et al., 2018). However, Janet may not be able to engage in any of these due to her mental condition, as such, she needs to receive proper care at a care centre where professionals will make her feel that she has already played her part in raising healthy children and having a successful career. This will play a significant role in her recovery. Behavioural theory Also known as behaviourism, is a learning theory which holds the view that all behaviour is acquired through conditioning. Nonetheless, the behaviours and feelings of human beings are thought as far more sophisticated as the behaviourist approach that was originally thought (Ziegler et al., 2015). As such, this theory has a weakness, in that, the theory treats people as if they were animals, and fails to consider many factors, such as their setting, social, cultural, economic and racial background. Nonetheless, the theory can work in this case because Janet is expected to behave in a manner as her condition, and this will only happen if she is taken care of in a care centre. Given her mental condition, Janet is expected to behave in a certain way or engaging in some activities that will help her recover, this might be difficult for her husband, thus the best option is in a care centre where she will be conditioned by professionals (Pound & Campbell, 2015). Additionally, in such a setting, there are clear rules on what she should or should not do and how she should behave. A nurse can explain the house rules and encourage her to be part of other programs in the care centre.
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