Student: Stefanie SinatCourse: Access to NursingReport Title: Multiple SclerosisTutor: Alex MacphersonDue Date: 23 October 20191. Terms of Reference This report has been compiled as part of the NC Communications Unit at Glasgow Kelvin College. The purpose of this report is to provide information on multiple sclerosis and to make recommendations as appropriate. This report is to be submitted to Alex Macpherson, Communications Lecturer, by 23rd October 2019.2. Procedure Information for this report was obtained by researching relevant websites.3. Multiple Sclerosis3.1 Definition of Multiple Sclerosis According to the Multiple Sclerosis Society (MS Society, 2019), their findings describe “Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition that affects your brain and spinal cord. In MS, the coating that protects your nerves (myelin) is damaged.” Normally the immune system destroys, prevents and defends against infections. However, with MS it recognises the nerves as being abnormal and attacks them so in effect the immune system stops working properly. This means signals sent from the central nervous system are interrupted and become blocked, causing a multitude of issues with sight, speech, emotions and overall balance (ibid).3.2 Types of Multiple Sclerosis According to Weatherspoon (2018) there are 4 different types of Multiple Sclerosis:• Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) – where symptoms will arise in a singular occurrence and last for more than a day. • Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) – where an attack of the symptoms will happen at unknown intervals classed as relapses, episodes are distinctive as the symptoms will appear significantly worse. Relapses are normally followed by rehabilitation periods classed as remissions where symptoms will recover, and the illness may stop progressing.• Primary-progressive MS (PPMS) – symptoms will show a steady and slow decline, with the illness gradually deteriorating over time with little or no relief. • Secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) – where the condition has stemmed from RRMS. This type of MS seems to be unpredictable and harder to define as the illness will continue to progress in a deteriorating decline, however, may still experience episodes of relapsing-remitting which will coincide.3.3 Statistics of Multiple SclerosisAccording to the Multiple Sclerosis Trust (2018) “An estimated 2,500,000 people in the world have multiple sclerosis.”, with a 3:1 ratio in women to men more likely to develop the disease within their lifetime. MS-UK (2019) research data also states that most young adults in their early to late 20s are more likely to be diagnosed with the condition than any other age group.3.3 Causes of Sleep DisordersIt has been widely published that there is no known cause on why anyone develops MS, however, research by MS-UK (2019) shows that there may be various links to genetic and environmental factors that play a part in the disease. MS-UK (2019) research shows there may be a unique build-up of genetics which may pose a risk of developing MS. Having a close relative with MS also shows an increased chance, however, studies have suggested that there is no proven link the condition carries a hereditary connection.Information recorded shows MS may also be affected by colder climates as there is less exposure to sunlight. Studies have highlighted more cases in these countries showing a lower level of vitamin D which may be a link in developing the illness (MS-UK, 2019).Other factors include being overweight as a teenager or a smoker can contribute to a higher risk of developing MS (NHS, 2018). 3.5 Diagnosis of Sleep DisordersIt’s recorded by NHS (2018) that symptoms of MS are common in various other medical conditions which makes it difficult to diagnose. It recommends a process of elimination approach followed by a series of tests which may involve one or all the following means to determine a diagnosis:• Neurological examination.• MRI scan.• Evoked potential test.• Lumbar puncture.• Blood tests.3.6 Treatment of Sleep DisordersIt is widely reported that there is no known cure for multiple sclerosis, however, symptoms of the illness may be treated (NHS, 2018). Various methods such as oral and intravenous medications can be explored, along with advice and supportfrom medical experts including a specialist MS Nurse. Various other therapies can be used such as fatigue management courses, cognitive behavioural therapy, physiotherapy and a clinical psychologist.4 ConclusionsMultiple sclerosis is a medical condition that affects the physical, mental health and emotional wellbeing of a person. There are multiple forms of MS, however, all cases are unique to the individual as it’s rare to get identical cases. The symptoms of MS can be life changing as it’s widely published that there is no known cure for MS. However, treatments may be used to manage symptoms such as drugs and physiotherapy to behavioural and psychological therapies. 5 Recommendations There are no recommendations in this report.