Summer Assignment1. How is the Renaissance defined? How does it differ from the Middle Ages? (1/2 page) The Renaissance literally means “Rebirth” in Old French. This is because the Renaissance rediscovered art, literature, and classical philosophy. It made several advances in science, technology, economy, religion, and more. The Renaissance period first started in Italy and then spread throughout Europe. It produced some of the best artists, painters, philosophers, and scientists that ever lived such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello, Dante, Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo, etc. The Renaissance differed from the Middle Ages in many ways. Also, known as the “Dark Ages”, the Middle Ages were a time of war, disease, famine, and economic downfall. The Middle Ages happened after the fall of the Roman Empire. The collapse of Rome left a power vacuum across Europe, which plunged the continent into continuous warfare. With the fall of Rome, Europe became lawless land where barbarians raided and forced farmers to pay taxes. 2. Politics (2 pages)- take notes on the following:a. Describe the 5 major city-states (p. 340-41) During the Renaissance, Italy was divided into 5 city-states. They were Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papal States, and Naples. The wealth of these city-states played a crucial role in the Renaissance. This money allowed the rulers to support artists, scientists, and philosophers spurring on new ideas and artistic movements. Most city-states were ruled by wealthy families. Florence was ruled by the wealthy Medici Family. Florence was known for its fabric production and banking. Milan, on the other hand, was ruled by the Sforza family and was known for its metalwork. b. Warfare (p. 342-43)Because Italy was not unified under one central government, but instead was divided into 5 city-states, it was constantly under war. Italy’s wealth and prosperity caused all the other neighboring countries to want to invade. Outsiders such as the French and the Spanish constantly fought one another for the control of Italy when it was divided. c. Diplomacy (p. 343) Today’s diplomacy first started in the Renaissance. But at that time ambassadors were servants of Christianity regardless of their home country. They were expected to follow and practice Christianity. The goal of an ambassador was general to promote the general welfare and peace. This idea of ambassadors was used by Italian states because Italian states were so small that they were in great danger of being attacked by surrounding states. To prevent this, they began to send ambassadors to learn information about other states. This practice slowly spread across Europe and now throughout the world. Near the end of the 15th century, a Venetian diplomat changed the purpose of an ambassador. d. Machiavelli (p. 343-44)· BackgroundMachiavelli was secretary of the Florentine council in 1498 which was 4 years after the Medici Family was expelled from the city. His political activity happened after the French invasion of 1494. He made many diplomatic missions including ones to France and even Germany. In 1512 the Battle of Ravenna was fought where the French lost and Spanish troops won. This caused the Medici Family to gain power in Florence. Many republicans like Machiavelli were later banished from Italy.- The PrinceBecause of his knowledge of Ancient Rome and the preoccupation of Italy’s political problems, Machiavelli understood that Italy’s size was a disadvantage against its neighbors. Italy was so small that it has become the fighting ground of many foreign states. Many of these states sought to seek control of Italy for its wealth and resources. To prevent this from happening again, Machiavelli wrote a book called The Prince. In this book, he explains that if the ruler expanded the region of Italy this would not happen.- What made a good leader?To Machiavelli, a good leader used ruthless means to achieve the political power need to rule the state. He said that both “force and fraud” were essential if a ruler was to gain power, allies, and even wars.e. French politics (p. 358-59)After the Hundred Years War, France was left defenseless. The overall population of France had decreased greatly. Farmlands and commerce areas were in ruins. Uncooperative nobles made it impossible for kings to effectively rule. The French economy was greatly damaged and disrupted by the war. Yet the war managed to create a common national feeling against the enemy. This allowed the kings to reestablish power. The need to wage another war gave the king the right to take taxes. f. English politics (p. 359) The Hundred Years War affected England just as much as it affected France. g. Spanish politics (p. 359-60)h. Holy Roman Empire politics (p. 360)i. Eastern European politics (p. 360-61)j. Ottoman Empire politics (p. 361)3. Economics (1/2 page)a. Expansion of trade (p. 334-35)In the early 13th century, Northern German Coastal towns created a vast trading center. By the 1500s about a total of 80 cities associated with the trading center which was named the Hansa League. The League had established many outlets throughout England and Northern Europe, including many important cities of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. For more than two hundred years the league controlled most of the trade for wood, fish, grain, metals, honey, and wine. Then in the 14th-century trade was lessening because of larger territorial states around it. b. Industry (p. 335)The economic crash of the 14th century also hit the industry. But in the 15th century, the industry slowly recovered. Along with the industries, Italian cities began to grow and expand. Industries like silk, glassware, and handworked items in metal and precious stone all grew. But not for long, new industries like the printing press, mining, and metallurgy became more prominent. New techniques made it easier to purify valuable metal from ore. c. Banking (p. 335)During the 15th century, Florence once again was the center of banking. This was mainly because of the Medici Family. They had expanded from cloth production to commerce to real estate and banking. At its height, the Medici family was the greatest bank all throughout Europe. They had established branches in many places like Venice, Milan, Rome, Avignon, Bruges, London and more. 4. Religion (1 page)- p. 361-364a. What is heresy? Look this up online if you don’t know.Heresy is usually used to refer to as violations of important spiritual teachings. It is a term that shows the person is going against the teachings of a religion. b. Beliefs/actions of John WyclifJohn despised corrupt clergies so much that he disapproved of all papal and medieval Christain beliefs and practices. He believed that all popes should be stripped of their power and property. He also believed that all Christians should only follow the bible and nothing else or no-one else. He proposed that the Bible should be translated into different languages so all Christians can read it. Wyclif made a lot of followers called the Lollards.c. Beliefs/actions of John HusThe views of John Wyclif were spread by marriage of royals of England and Bohemia. Wyclif’s views strengthened the ideas of Czech reformers led by John Hus. Hus believed that the worldliness and corruption of the clergy should be eliminated. He also believed that the papacy of the Catholic Church had excessive power and hoped to remove it. John Hus was summoned to Council of Constance, where he was deemed as a heretic and burned at the stake. This caused the Bohemia to wage was war until a peace treaty was arranged in 1436. d. Efforts to reform the ChurchThe endeavors of the Council of Constance to change the church were less successful than its endeavor to eliminate all sin. The committee passed two reform orders. Sacrosancta meant that the church got its specialist from God; subsequently, each Christian, counting the pope, was subject to its specialist. The declare Frequens provided for the standard holding of common boards to guarantee that church change would proceed. Taken together, Sacrosancta and Frequens gave for an authoritative framework inside the church predominant to the popes.e. Corruption and secularization of the Papacy during the RenaissanceBecause Popes could not build dynasties over several generations, they relied on nepotism to promote their families interests. For example, a pope named Pope Sixtus IV made 5 of his nephews cardinals. He made sure that his nephews had a lot of church offices to build up their finances. 5. Society (1 page)a. What was the estate’s system? (p. 335-36)The Resistance estates were very similar to the estates of the middle ages. The estates were divided into three different levels : the clergy, the nobility , and the peasants. The clergy guided the other estates to spiritual ends. They showed the way to the others. The next estate the nobility made sure that peace and justice was there throughout the town. They were, like the name suggests, noble. The last estates were the townspeople or the peasants. They made up of about 90% of the population. b. The nobility (p. 336)· General info and factsIn Europe, the nobles who owned land faced declining incomes during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Nevertheless, many members of the old nobility survived, and new blood infused their ranks. A reconstruction of the aristocracy was well underway in 1500. As a result of this reconstruction, the nobles, old and new, who constituted between 2 and 3 percent of the population in most countries, managed to dominate society as they had done in the Middle Ages, serving as military officers and holding important political posts as well as advising the king. In the sixteenth century, members of the aristocracy increasingly pursued education as the means to maintain their role in government.· Ideals as expressed in The Book of the CourtierNobles were expected to be completely faultless. They are supposed to be of high standard and expected to be full of grace. They must have a lot of talents and must attain a lot of cultural achievements. They must participate in the military and are expected to be excellent at fighting skills. They must have a classical education and adorn their life with arts such as playing many musical instruments, painting, and drawing. They are expected to follow a code of conduct. They should be modest but not hide their accomplishments but indeed show them with grace.The purpose of this was that nobles should serve his king with effective and honest work.c. Peasants and townspeople (p. 336)· General info and factsPeasants and townspeople made up of about 85-90% of the population except in the Urban Populations. Because of the black death landlords freed peasants and began accepting rent from them. The most noticeable trend produced by the economic crisis of the fourteenth century was the decline of the manorial system and the continuing elimination of serfdom. This process had already begun in the twelfth century when the introduction of a money economy made possible the conversion of servile labor dues into rents paid in money, although they also continued to be paid in kind or labor. · Changing lifestyle of peasantsThese peasants also worked on the landlord land and tilled the lords plants. The rest of the third estate were the townspeople.· Social hierarchy in citiesAt the height of the urban society were the patricians. They derived their wealth from trade, industry, and banking. This enabled them to dominate the communities socially and politically. Below them were the petty burghers—the shopkeepers, artisans, guild masters, and guild members, who were largely concerned with providing goods and services for local consumption. Even lower the these classes were the low wagers and the unemployed. These people live in squalid and miserable conditions on the streets. These were about 30-40% of the population living in the city.d. Slavery during the Renaissance (p. 336-37) Slavery existed the the dark ages but was slowly diminishing and was getting replaced by serfdom. Italian cities slaves were getting used to make handcrafted goods. Girls slaves were used as nurse mates and boys were used as playmates for children. Slaves for the Italian market were obtained primarily from the eastern mediterranean and the black Sea regions. These slaves came from africa and were either morris or ethiopians or muslims from spain. Near the end of the fifteenth century slavery have been completely diminished. Slaves have been freed by their owners for humanitarian reasons. e. Family during the Renaissance (p. 337-40)Marriages were often to strengthen businesses or family. When children were only two or three year old they were reinforced by legally binding marriage contracts. A dowry was required upon a marriage usually presented by the wife’s family to the husband. f. The role of women (p. 341-42)The role of the women were to bear children. Wealthy women bore children and gave them to wet nurses to raise. These women bore children about once a year. The women did this because of about every 1 out of 2 children lived to adulthood.