Task ACognitive developmentPiaget was born in Switzerland in the late 1800s and

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Task ACognitive developmentPiaget was born in Switzerland in the late 1800s and was a precious student publishing her first scientific paper when she was 11 years old.Jean Piagets Theory suggests that children Move through four different development stages these stages are: • Stages from birth to 2 years Children know the world through their movements and senses Children learn through basic actions such as looking and listening Children learn things come and go even when out of sight Children are separate from the people and objects around themChildren realize that their actions and what they do can cause things to happen around them• Stages from 2 to 7 years Children are starting to learn and think and also use word which resents to objects Children don’t see eye to eye with others Children are beginning to pretend play but struggling to point out the view of other children.• Stages 7 to 11 years At this age children are beginning to think logically about different events.They are beginning to know the concept of big, little, long, short, day and night etc.• Stage 12 and above At this age children can tell you about their problems Being able to talk about what they have done wrong More thought are made This links to practice because Paget’s work in the early years setting and at school is to try and get children to have a more hands on approach when it comes to learning. In my practice we do this by letting the children get what toys or activities they want out, making sure that activities are child lead and nit always adult lead, By doing this it helps us have a more of an idea in which area of development children are in and can observe them.Lev Vygotsky Lev was born 1896-1934His theory was the zone of proximal development which means it is an idea to get children’s development defined in both what children can do on their own and with an adult. He also, an interactionist and explanation for language, he thought that language came from interacting with people.Children reflect their experiences of language on their own personal experiences with their thoughts. He also believed that talking aloud and to themselves is what children do inner speech which is silent.Inner speech is (the silent and inside yourself)Social communication is where you use speech and use language.This links to practise because Vygotsky has suggested that child should be challenged and work more independently. In my setting we allow children to play independently if they want too, we do this to help children’s speech. We work alongside children because this helps children develop at their best. Let children take their own experiences and we let them ask for help if they need it. By letting children work on their own it can help them use inner speech which this could make them speak out loud.Humanist Development Abraham Maslow 1908-1970Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a hierarchical pyramid with five levels on it. The four levels are known as the lower order needs and is the physiological needs but the top level is considered growth needs. These levels are:• Self-actualization which included confidence, self-esteem, achievement and respect• Belongingness and this includes love, friendship and family• Safety this included security of their environment, resources health and their property• Physiologic which means air, food ,water, sex and sleepThis links to practice because we can include Maslow’s pyramid to make sure that children have a high self-esteem, have nice friendships are getting the love they need. Also, making sure that children are fed and have water, make sure that children have a nice environment and make sure that the children have good security and well looked after when they are in your care. So we include this is practise making sure that children’s well-being is safe in the setting. Also, making sure that all needs are met, so they can build a healthy relationship. Carl Rogers 1902-1987Carl was a humanistic psychologist who worked with Abraham Maslow, but he added that for a person to grow they need an environment that provides them with self-disclosure and acceptance and empathy.Roger has 5 characteristics for a fully functional person these are:• Open experience: this means both negative and positive emotions. Negative feelings are not denied, but can work through them.• Existential living: this is where you look for the future, meaning that don’t look what has happened in the past and live for the moment.• Trust feeling: this is feeling and gut reactions are paid attention and they are trusted, people who make their own decisions are the right ones and we should always trust ourselves.• Creativity: this means you use creative thinking and take risks, not all people play safe all the time. This means children need to seek out new experiences.• Fulfilled life: this means a person is happy with life and is always looking for new challenges and experiences for them to achieve.This links to practice because when we work with children we need to make sure that children are living for the moment not bringing what has happened in the past up and keeping it at the future. In an early years setting we need to make sure that all children’s feelings are noticed, making sure that they take risks to help them learn and making sure they are happy with in the setting is the most important thing.Social Learning Albert Bandura (1925) found out that children copy people in their lives especially them who have a strong personality. This shows that parent behaviour can have a massive impact on how their child’s behaviour can be some of these are:• If children are smacked by adults, they are likely to hit other children.• If children are shouted at by parents, they are likely to shout at others.• If children are given explanations, they are likely to explain things too.• People who work with children have a big part in the child’s social learning.Bandura did a bobo dolly study getting children to watch 3 tapes one was the adult was rewarded for hitting the doll. Second one was the adult was punished for hitting the doll. The last one was, nothing was done about the adult hitting the doll.The children was given a doll, most of them ended up hitting the doll and this is because they see on the video they got reward for it. This links to practice because when in an early years setting we have a positive and happy impact on children and it’s very important that you do. Because when they see you positive and happy they will react the same. Also we reward children when they do something positive so they know that that is the right thing to do. By doing this it encourages the children to have more positive behaviour with in the setting.ConstructivistJohn Dewey 1859-1952Dewey said when children learn their best when they ate interacted with their environments and was involved with school activities. He said rather than a child being a recipient of knowledge they was better when they took an active part in the process of their own learning he also placed greater emphasis on the social context of learning. Dewey argued that for education to be at its best children should be given a learning opportunity that helps them link present content to previous experiences and knowledge.This links to practice because Dewey says children learn better when they are given opportunities, in an early years setting we do this. By letting child learn in their own way with is beneficial for them, they will develop in their own time by doing this and nobody is pushing them to do things they don’t want to do.Jerome Bruner (1915-2006)Bruner’s theory is on constructive the idea of this learning is to active process where those learning are able to have a new idea based on what they already know and what has happened in the past. This theory can offer the learner ability to organize experiences and get a meaning for them. There is four principals for this theory which are:• Predilection toward learning• How grouping knowledge is able to be understood by the learner• Effective manners for the teacher to present from what the learner has said • Give rewards out as well as punishments .This links to practice because Bruner says that it is important for children to get rewards by how much progress they have made and not just to punish them when they do something wrong. In an early years setting they have to praise children, by rewarding children it want to make them proceed to get progress. Because every time they progress more they will remember they get a reward.BehaviouristThere are two types of well documented conditioning; classical conditioning and operant conditioning.Ivan palov 1849-1936Classical conditioning is where Ivan worked with dogs and notices that the dogs he was studding would always start to salivate before food was given them. At the end he came to the conclusion that the dogs have associated bringing out the food with other things such as, sound of footsteps, and when they see the buckets. This means that because of this they would salivate.To show this clearly, Pavlov came up with an experiment where he fed the dog while he was ringing a bell. By doing this the dogs will associate the bell with food and when they heard the bell they would salivate even when food wasn’t given to them.John B. Watson (1878 – 1958) took over Pavlov’s work and discovered that children and adults could also be classically conditioned. In his most famous and controversial experiment, known today as the “Little Albert”” experiment