The biopsychosocial model is both a philosophy of clinical care and a

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The biopsychosocial model is both a philosophy of clinical care and a practical clinical guide. Philosophically, it is a way of understanding how suffering, disease, and illness are affected by multiple levels of organization, from the societal to the molecular. At the practical level, it is a way of understanding the patient’s subjective experience as an essential contributor to accurate diagnosis, health outcomes, and humane care. the BPS approach posits that biological, psychological, and social factors play a significant role in disease causation and treatment. This approach brought about a new way of conceptualizing mental health difficulties and engendered changes within research, medical teaching and practiceThe conceptual influence of the BPS model has spread outside the realms of medicine and psychiatry, and has highlighted that health is more than merely the absence of disease given that the psychological and social dimensions had to be accounted for rather than purely the physical.It has been claimed that the BPS approach has contributed to a reduction in the mind-body split that has been prominent in medicine. This has helped to foster opportunities for mental health services to be integrated into the primary care sector and for mental health researchers to broaden the scope of their investigations.The view that schizophrenia is by nature a somatic, not a heterogenic, disorder simplifies estimation of its evolution. As a result, some investigators consider that its psychopathological symptoms arise from the disorder itself, from a theoretically specific process of a brain lesion. Nevertheless, psychiatry has another, less reductively physiological, standpoint based on the notion that features of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms are of essential importance in the origin and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. Most researchers consider adaptation a dynamic process of adjusting to changeable life conditions.Within the concept of a network of adaptation and compensation, an interpretation of schizophrenia as a diathesis-stress disease is being developed. Generally, the main point of diathesis-stress theories is that they acknowledge the presence of a dynamic totality: first, of biological vulnerability as a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.It is important to take psychological and biological adaptations into account during examination of etiopathogenic aspects of schizophrenia. It is necessary to point out that the nature of the relation between biological adaptation mechanisms (concerned with corresponding brain structures) and psychological adaptation mechanisms remains as unclear as discussions of the problem of the correlation between brain and mind.A person’s psychological defense mechanisms serve as psychological coping means that aim to keep the level of conflicts within the limits of the background. However, in case of influence of external additional risk factors (the environment, micro- and macropopulation), a person’s psychological defense mechanisms cannot cope with a problem, and a psychological stress condition results. If the influence of the stress factor is halted and/or reserve defense mechanisms are marshaled, the psychological stress condition may be reversible. Otherwise, “return to the initial position” does not occur, which contributes to a distorted response or to different social effects. As a result, the reciprocal reaction is part of a “vicious circle” mechanism that intensifies the person’s psychosocial vulnerability [6] to the pathogenic influence of many life events. This leads to activation of the genetic mechanism of vulnerability.Symptoms of schizophrenia are delusions and hallucinations – dopaminergic hyperfunction • disorganisation • negative symptoms – dopaminergic hypofunction • cognitive • mood and anxietyBiopsychosocial model of the aetiology of schizophrenia Predisposing Precipitating PerpetuatingBio genetic head injury gender drug abuse head injury drug abuse compliancePsycho Conflict Life events coping style hopelessnessSocial Role Isolation, gender PovertyIsolation Social network , work, familyThe ‘bio’ component of this theory examines aspects of biology that influence health. These might include things like brain changes, genetics, or functioning of major body organs, such as the liver, the kidneys, or even the motor system. For example, let’s say Joan has an accident that leaves her with reduced movement in her right arm. This biological change might influence how she feels about herself, which could lead to depression or anxiety in certain situations.The ‘psycho’ component of the theory examines psychological components, things like thoughts, emotions, or behaviors. Joan might go through many different psychological changes. She might experience decreased self-esteem, fear of judgement, or feel inadequate in her life or job. These changes in thoughts might lead to changes in behaviors, like avoiding certain situations, staying at home, or quitting her job. As she engages in these behaviors, her injury might worsen, or she could suffer further depression and anxiety.The ‘social’ component of the BPS model examines social factors that might influence the health of an individual, things like our interactions with others, our culture, or our economic status. A possible social factor for Joan could be her role in her household. Perhaps Joan is a new mother. An injured arm might reduce her ability to care for her new baby. Being unable to fulfill this social role might trigger problems with her husband or other family members, causing Joan stress that could lead to further biological or psychological problems.An important connection to make here is that the elements of the BPS model are all connected. Biology can affect psychology, which can affect social well-being, which can further affect biology, and so on. Joan’s biological state changed, which affected her psychological state and social interactions, which all went on to affect each other againUnlike the biomedical model that aims to provide “one care suits all” approach, the BPS approach is designed to suit each individual’s needs as his/her social and psychological environment is taken into consideration.Criticisms have been levelled at the BPS approach with suggestions that it is both time-consuming and expensive to apply. Time and cost are particularly pressing issues in resource-poor settings, where few healthcare professionals are available to attend to the large numbers of people experiencing mental health difficulties. It is claimed that the holistic nature of the BPS approach makes it a luxury many healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries cannot afford.. The BPS approach requires that more information be gathered during the assessment procedure about an individual’s socioeconomic status, culture, religion, as well as psychological factors that might affect the individual’s condition. There are often insufficient training opportunities or financial resources available to support the existence of multidisciplinary teams consisting of psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, mental health nurses, and social welfare workers to allow for a full consideration of the biological, psychological, and social factors involved in the mental health difficulties, with responsibility instead often falling to physicians whose expertise may be limited to patient’s biological complaintsIn conclusion, the BPS approach has contributed to an eschewing of deeply ingrained features of the folk model such as the mind-body split and made an important conceptual contribution for understanding mental health difficulties in a more all-encompassing fashion.