The Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) is a way of studying false memory in psychology. Originally created by James Deese in 1959. It was not until Henry L. Roediger III and Kathleen McDermott, who added on to the research in 1995, that the study became popular. The two articles that have been chosen will discuss the different causes that can create false memory. Some of those items are sleep, emotionally charged behavior, and gender. For the first study, researchers examined about 132 children all ages from 6-12. The hypothesis proposed was that adults are not affected against false memories not only with positive endings, but also by negative endings when given similar versions of the same model. In the new study, researchers had examined the issue using a sample of 132 children aged 6–12 years. The median age was roughly 9 years. Participants looked at photographs showing six events that had a positive, negative, and/or a neutral valanced ending. True and false recognition memory of photographs related to the observed scripts were tested as a function of emotionality. Causal errors were found to be affected by valence. Valence meaning children made fewer causal errors for positive than for neutral or negative events. For this method, sleep measurements were arranged according to the participants’ schedules. This study was also done throughout the school year during the months of January to December, but excluded July due to holidays during the summer. Most all of the recordings were completed on school nights. All recordings were done using SOMNOscreen plus; an in-lab testing monitor that measures sleep. This is an easier version for patients to use because it is a small device that makes it where the participant can move around freely during sleep. A trained research nurse attached gold cup electrodes to 6 locations on the head. The frontal hemispheres: F3, F4; central hemispheres: C3, C4; occipital hemispheres: O1, O2. In addition to hemisphere-specific measures, researchers calculated overall frontal and central measures from both hemispheres. The electro-oculogram (EOG) and the electromyogram (EMG) were measured by using disposable adhesive electrodes, two locations for EOG and three locations for EMG.