The four research articles were specifically chosen due to the dietary experimentations

The four research articles were specifically chosen due to the dietary experimentations that tested and evaluated the manifestations viewed as a result of nutritional alterations for prevention of cardiovascular disease. The articles experimented with diverse nutritional approaches. According to Dewell et. al, antioxidants could present significant anti-inflammatory factors in people with higher baseline levels of inflammation, however higher doses may be required to observe important effects and more studies need to be conducted to determine which specific biomarkers affect cardiovascular disease the most (Dewell et. al, 2017). According to Maddock et. al, there is an association with the DASH diet and the less quantity of cardiovascular risk factors shown by the people in this study that had increased activity, smoked less, and had a lower BMI than people which did not have the DASH diet regimen (Maddock et. al, 2018). In the study conducted by Casas et. al, participants who followed the Mediterranean diet supplemented with olive oil and nuts demonstrated a more impressive drop in systolic blood pressure of 6 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of 3 mmHg, and a decrease in LDL cholesterol compared to the low-fat diet group (Casas et. al, 2014). In the study conducted by Hu et. al, individuals demonstrated better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet which was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3% greater weight loss, 1.1 increased loss of fat mass and 1.3 greater augmentation in lean mass, compared to a diet low in fats which demonstrated no relation with weight loss (Hu et. al, 2018). Nurses can inform individuals based on the studies demonstrating how individuals who are at risk for CVD can modify nutritional intake to avoid cardiovascular disease. A diet with less carbohydrates reduces inflammatory markers that are associated to plaque formation, lower LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure which are all predominant contributing influences of cardiovascular disease (Hu et. al, 2018). Patients can be instructed using dietary measures which decrease the number of contributing factors of CVD. The decreased intake of high fat foods and increased fiber, fruit and vegetable intake in daily meals can help the patient significantly decrease the severity of disease. The nurse can advise the patient about alterations in the daily routine and give alternative ideas the patient will be more likely to adhere to, such as different recipes and food choices while going out to eat at restaurants. It is important to talk about the preferences of the patient in order to maintain adherence to the nutritional modification choices. To conclude this review, the decreased intake of foods that are high in fat and cholesterol is a major factor in cardiovascular risk prevention. The intake of vegetables, fiber, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish, and olive oil is beneficial to all individuals, however it is especially important in patients with atherosclerosis, and obesity to reduce the occurence of cardiac ischemia.

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