The purpose of these research articles is to give a brief overview of the three fundamental research type questions, descriptive, correlational, and causal research and summarize the purpose, hypotheses, methods, results, and conclusion. ARTICLE SUMMARYSchrempft, Stephanie, Jackowska, Marta, Hamer, Mark &Steptoe, Andrew (2019). Associations between social isolation, loneliness, and objective physical activity in older men and women: BMC Public Health 19, (74) https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6424-y According to Schrempft et al. (2019), references the link between social relationships and objective physical activity in men and women aged 50-81 years old and the impact it has on health. The purpose of this descriptive article summary is to give a brief overview of the descriptive study. The study tested the alternative hypothesis that social isolation and loneliness related to less object physical activity and more inactive behavior in older adults. The article states that social isolation and loneliness can lead to chronic medical illnesses. The research consisted of several measures to help refine statistical results; social isolation, loneliness, objective physical activity, health and mobility impairment, depressive symptoms, and socioeconomic factors. Additional variables taken into consideration because it relates to an individual’s activity level were; marital status/cohabitating, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and age. Procedures utilized in the study population included; data collection from self-completion questionnaires, computer-assisted personal interviews every two years, home visits every four years from a research nurse professional (biomarkers collection) (objective- a subcategory of medical signs). Also, a random sample of older adults wore the accelerometer (device that measures movement) on the wrist for eight days with a daily sleep log. The results suggest that social isolation connects better with health behaviors rather than loneliness. Also, that social isolation and physical activity were not a direct link because the association could be secondary to other factors. The article similarly states that social isolation were associated with inactive behavior and low levels of physical activity. Loneliness did not have a connection with physical activity or inactive behavior. The null hypothesis – if there is no link between social isolation, loneliness, then chronic medical illnesses will not affect older adults. Schrempft et al. (2019) conclude that social isolation is related to reduced physical activity. They also state that nd increased idle time, and variations in physical activity may contribute to increased health risks associated with isolation.ARTICLE SUMMARY Bajaj, Mohani-Preet K, Burrages, Daniel R., Tappouni, Andrew, Dodds, James W., Jones, Paul W.& Baker, Emma H. (2019). COPD patients hospitalized with exacerbations have greater cognitive impairment than patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 14 https://www.dovepress.com/by18.104.22.168Bajaj et al. (2019) state that people with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder) suffer from cognitive dysfunction, which is higher in those hospitalized for exacerbations than in stable outpatients. The purpose of this article summary is to give a brief overview of the correlational study. The alternative hypothesis in this study is that; patients with COPD severities are more likely to have cognitive weakening over patients with other chronic illnesses due to COPD-specific factors. The method utilized for this study was a prospective-case-control study (observing subjects with similar backgrounds for any outcome over a long period). The test compared cognition between 20 hospitalized patients with acute COPD and 20 patients with decompensated heart failure (HF). Patients selected were comparable with age and two or more existing medical conditions. Clinical and demographic characteristics of participants included age, smoking history, white blood cell count, drugs for heart failure, drugs for COPD, drugs affecting cognition, oxygen saturation, to name a few. The cognitive assessment included the use of the confusion assessment method (CAM), a bedside tool consisting of 9 operationalized criteria, and the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) assessing, visual and motor skills, executive function, naming, delayed recall, attention, language, abstraction, and orientation. The results showed that both groups have a mild case of cognitive impairment; however, people with COPD had a more significant case of cognitive impairment. The null hypotheses – if patients with increased severity of COPD are not cognitive impaired, then patients with Heart Failure overload are not cognitive impaired. There are no clinical characteristics that contribute to cognitive impairment. To conclude the summary, the study also revealed that smoking and blood glucose levels (diabetes) could be potential contributing factors for cognitive dysfunction.ARTICLE SUMMARYKnežević, Jasmina & Krstić, Tatjana (2019). The role of basic psychological needs in the perception of job insecurity. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology- Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, 70, 54-59. DOI:10.2478/aiht-2019-70-3156The study article by Knežević & Krstić (2019), seeks to find out if basic psychological needs decrease the perception of threats generated by job insecurity. The purpose of this causal article is to summarize the findings and state a null hypothesis. The study further states that job insecurity is one of the most significant sources of work-related stress and has negative consequences for both the employer and employee. The alternative hypotheses (tested with multiple regression analysis) states that better satisfaction of basic psychological needs in a working environment diminishes the sense of threat and powerlessness. The experiment method included 310 participants employed at 24 companies in the following eight descriptive categories; gender, age, company ownership (state, private), position in the company, level of education, marital status, socioeconomic status, and previous experience of job loss. All participants completed the Perception of Job Insecurity Scale and Need Satisfaction Scale questionnaires. The results revealed that multiple regression analysis (understanding which among the IV is related to the DV) pointed out to two basic needs. Perception of choice and a sense of one’s initiative behavior and action (autonomy) and sense of success in completing challenging tasks and achieving the desired goal (competence) as factors that reduce the levels of perceived job insecurity. The null hypotheses -if basic psychological needs are not satisfied in a working environment, feeling of threats and powerlessness increases.The article concludes that self-perceived autonomy and competence are recipes for confidence-building and that one can perceive a threat as a challenge and use effective coping mechanisms to eliminate stress in the workplace. Further examination is suggested to understand the causal relations between satisfying basic psychological needs and perception of job insecurity.
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