The research method employed to address this question is qualitative in nature

The research method employed to address this question is qualitative in nature due to its emphasis, flexibility and its ability to explore and measure the reality of social situations and at the same time generate rich detailed and valid data that will give an in-depth understanding of the situation.The adult participants were selected across the school through a purposeful random sampling technique to enhance the credibility of the study and the population being studied was selected through a critical case sampling technique due to its likelihood of generating the information needed to address the research question.This research was carried out in a private primary school in northern Nigeria over a period of seven weeks in May and June 2019. Young children from a Nursery class of fourteen students were selected as the population for the study. This was eventually narrowed down by critical friends to an individual child case study after initial observation of the Nursery classroom due to its idiographic approach. Ten participants (6 females and 4 males) were selected for the study. Care was taken to ensure that there was a good representation of gender and ethnicity with the purpose of obtaining varied opinions of the situation. Six participants were selected randomly across the different departments of the school to observe the child participant, determine the concerns about the student and to identify the triggers of his disruptive behaviour. The other four were interviewed, being specialist teachers of the child to be observed. Written consent was obtained from the school’s headmaster, approval was also sought from the University’s ethical committee and clearance of the participant’s information sheet and consent form prior to the commencement of the research. Each participant was invited for an informal meeting and was debriefed about their role in the research and how to fill out the observation form. They were encouraged to ask questions for clarification purposes after which identification codes were assigned each participant which they are to highlight or circle on their observation form. Participation was voluntary and each participant signed a consent form to show their understanding of the research ethics and their right to anonymity, confidentiality and withdrawal at any point of the research. A pilot study was conducted over a period of three days by a different population from those selected for the main study (in order to avoid any form of bias in the main study) to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed research methods, procedure and instruments. The pilot study revealed that the procedure and method employed are feasible but the data collection method needed some modification and the method of data entry and representation necessary for this research (excel) had been forgotten due to lack of use. Support was sought from the ICT teacher to relearn the use of excel. SPSS was also employed as an alternative means of presentation of the findings.Modification of the ABC observation form to a simpler and more manageable one was done as the former was time- consuming for the participants to fill out. A second pilot study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the reviewed ABC observation form over a period of two days by the same participants from the initial pilot study. The reviewed ABC form proved to be more manageable than the former. The data collected from the pilot test was also incorporated into the main research. A semi-structured interview was conducted individually with specialist teachers (P.E., Music, Library, ICT) for a period of twenty minutes each to gather relevant data based on their perception of the student’s disruptive behaviour and the strategies that they employ to manage the behaviour based on their interpretation and understanding of the problem behaviour. The emerging themes gathered from the interview served as part of the triangulation process. Qualitative data was also generated by six participants/critical friends through direct observation of the child displaying disruptive behaviour while filling out the reviewed Antecedent, Behaviour and Consequence (ABC) observation form over a period of ten working days to determine the trigger(s) of the disruptive behaviour and the effectiveness of the consequences administered. Each participant was assigned a separate day of the week to carry out their observation and was not permitted to discuss their findings with any other participant in order to maintain the credibility of the data collected. The retrieved ABC forms were coded to ensure the anonymity of the participants. The classroom incident book also provided rich evidence of previous occurrences which were included in the data generation process as it uncovered important information about the child being observed. These data were analysed descriptively by interpreting the texts and finding relationships and patterns in the responses of the participants to inform grouping of similar themes (see Table 1) which was graphed (see Bar Graph 1a, 1b and 1c). This was finalized in an informal collegial dialogue with all the participants for the purpose experience sharing and for discussing the data generated to ascertain whether the themes are reflective of their observation. Thematic data generated from the classroom incidence book, individual interviews and direct observation provided highly qualitative information for effective triangulation and research credibility. As a result of the findings, a positive behaviour support plan (PBSP) was designed and implemented for the purpose of intervention (see Table 2) in school and at home. The consequence intervention plan was explained and implemented for all the students in order to avoid any feeling of isolation and victimization of the child exhibiting disruptive behaviour. Due to time constraint, five days after the intervention plan another observation was conducted by the research participants to ascertain the effectiveness of the intervention (see table 3). The finding was also graphed (see bar graph 2) and compared against the preliminary baseline findings to analyse the possibility of an improvement in the behaviour pattern. A copy of this research findings was emailed to all the participants to provide information on the final results

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