UAS VICTORIAN

Chapter I1.1 BackgroundVictoria is a queen in 1837, when she 18 years old and death in 1901. Victorian is an era when Queen Victoria leads the England. The period of Victorian era begin form 1837 until 1901. During the Victorian era, Britain was the world’s most powerful nation. In Victorian era the industrial and science grow fast. Victorian era also known as industrial revolution, when industrialism growing so fast, people being hard-worker. And the science also made people being fall in love with science and they did not care their family. Victorian town also a symbolised Britain’s in progress of industrialism and technology. The industrialism effect in contaminated environment, the change of people habits, live is not like usual and not humanize human beings. Almost in of five children born in 1830s and 1840s had died by age of five, cause of polluted and damps housing.Henry James (1843-1916) is a greatest of American writers, was born in New York but spent most his live in England. He died in age 72 years old. Henry James never married. He was named for his father, a prominent social theorist and lecturer as was the younger brother of the pragmatist philosopher William James. When he young Henry James was a shy boy and an book-addicted. On the eve of the American Civil War the James family settled at Newport, Rdhe Island and in Boston. Henry James to know New England intimately, when he was 19 years old. He entered at the Harvard Law School, but he study time to reading Charles Agustin Sainte-Beuve, Honoore de Balzac and Nathaniel Hawthorne. His first story appeared two years later in the New York Continental Monthly with anonymous author and his first book reviews in the North America review. In his 20 years old Henry James was regarded as one of the most skill full writers of shorts stories in American. He wrote the short stories, review and article for almost a decade before he attempted a full-length novel. Henry James went to Europe in 1869, he travel to England , France and Italy. Henry James is known an American Realism. He was born at the beginning of Victorian. When he started to wrote his story, element Realism emergence. As we know American Realism is the industrial revolution that took place at the end of the 19th century. People left rural homes for opportunities in urban cities. With the development of new machinery and equipment, the U.S economy became more focused on factory production, Americans did not have to chiefly rely on farming and agriculture to support their families. At the same time, immigrants from all over the world crowded into tenements to take advantage of new urban opportunities. Most of Henry James works are about his movement American-England or England-American. The Pupils, The Turn of the Screw, The Wings of the Dove and The Jolly Corner. Henry James wrote The Jolly Corner in 1908. The story tells about an old man Spencer Brydon, native American who left home at the age of 23 to live in Europe. He came back in New York at 56 year old after his father and brother to take care their property in New York ( he calls his house on the Jolly corner). He meets his old friend Alice Staverton and an cleaner Mrs Muldon. He discusses the change he sees in New York and in himself with her. He becomes preoccupied with what might have become of him, he had stayed behind in America instead of going to live in Europe. Visiting the old family home late at night, he sees other self of him (his alter-ego) actually exist like a gosh in the building. Night by night he spent his time to talking with his alter-ego. Finally he finds himself nursed by Alice and Mrs Muldon. Alice says that she was prompted to search for Spencer Brydon having had a dream about the Alter-ego and had in fact seen the same figure on reaching the building. Brydon realize that this figure is the other self, that he would have become rich, but made ugly by the life he had led. 1.2 Problem statement By the background, the central problem in this story is alter-ego Spencer Brydon. To make sure the discussion that will be discuss. Writer makes question to analyse the short story. That is “how alter-ego appears in The Jolly Corner?1.3 Theoretical frameworkAlter-ego is a condition when someone forming other character in his/her life consciously. This character sometimes is ideal picture of him/her, that he cannot be realized in real life, just in his dream. Some people also say that Alter-ego is a way for them to hide the side of themselves that they want to hide from others. An Alter-ego (Latin: the other I) is a second self, which is believed to be distinct from a person’s normal or original personality. The term was coined in the early nineteenth century when dissociative identity disorder was first described by psychologist (wikipedia.org/). According to The Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary and Cultural Criticism “In Lacanian psychoanalytic theory, which argues that individuals (subjects) are contrasted through the acquisition of the power to express desire and needs through language, the other is the ultimate signifies of everyone the subject is not, as well as everything the subject does not have. For Lacan, the discovery of the other parallel the acquisition of the abilities to speak and to distinguish between I and you, which are tantamount to the acquisition of social identity. In a more general and older sense, the phrase the Other has long been used by philosopher and social scientist to refer to anyone who is not I-the Other actually defines me because it is the ultimate signifier of everything I am not” (Childers and Hentzi 1995:216)Chapter IIDiscussion2.1 Spencer Brydon and his Alter-egoAs we know, Spencer Brydon returns his mother county New York to take care the property of his family. After he spent his life in Europe in 33 years and comeback in New York when he 56 years. “He had been twenty- three on leaving New York, he was fifty-six today; unless indeed he was to reckon as he had sometimes, since his repatriation, found himself feeling. In which case he would have lived longer that is often allotted to man.”(James:463)He discuss with his friend Alice About hi situation after coming back to American. While he looking for renovation of his apartment. Like he want to tell, if he stayed in American, maybe he can found something new in architectural. And Alice said:“if he had but stayed at home he would have discovered his genius in time really to start some new variety of awful architectural hare and run it till it burrowed in gold-mine” (James :467)After that, Spencer Brydon starts looking for his apartment which under-renovation. Few days, three times a day. He spends many hours in the house to be stalker what seems to be his alte-ego. He stands before a closed door which he is certain he has opened before. He thing twice to opening the door for a while, but decides against it. And then he goes downstrairs, he sees the door is open, but he sure that he has been close the door before. Next day, in night, Spencer Brydon came back in his apartment to see look-like his alter-ego. “on his return, that night, the night succeeding his last intermission, he stood in the hall and looked up the staircase with a certainly more intimate than any he had yet known. “he’s there, at the top and waiting-not, as in general, falling back for disappearance. He’s holding his ground, and it’s the first time- which is a proof, isn’t that something has happened for him.”(James: 482)In this case, Spencer curious about his alter-ego looks like. If we back the definition of alter-ego is a condition when someone makes other person in his life. Spencer Brydon did not realize that he has been making other person in his life. He saw the alter-ego as gosh in his apartment. The more Spencer Brydon searching his alter-ego in his apartment more he can see this alter-ego, after he saw it, he speechless to see his alter-ego“his instinct was all for mildness, but his feet were harsh on the floors and strangerly, when he has in a couple of minute become aware of this, it counted somehow for help. He couldn’t have spoken, the tone of his voice would have scared him, and the common conceit or resource of “whistling in the dark” have appeared basely vulgar; yet he liked none the less to hear himself go and when he had reached his first lending taking it all with no rush, but quite steadily”(James: 491)Alter-ego of Spencer Brydon not seeing only Brydon but his friend Alice can see it. She saw with his eyes but in dream. In their conversation Alice told him:“well, in the cold dim dawn of this morning I too saw you”Saw me? Said Brydon“saw him” said Alice Staverton. “it must have been at the same moment” (James: 498)By the dream Alice can saw alter-ego of Brydon. dream is a succession of image, ideas, emotions and sensations that usually occur involuntary in the mind during certain stages of sleep (American heritage dictionary). The alter-ego appearing in her dream because she often heard confided of Brydon about his alter-ego. She understand him more than Brydon understand his life.In the end of the story, Spencer Brydon wake up from fainted. He finds Alice and Mrs Muldon at his side. He think, he already died. Alice kissed him. Alice tells him that she knew he was visiting his alter-ego in apartment. Alice says that she had seen a vision of his other self in the early hours of mourning. Its mean Brydon has met him too. And Brydon tries to deny it, he calling his other self is “black stranger”. He little bit shame of his alter-ego. He thinks Alice can think that his alter-ego is a monster. With holding hand of Spencer, Alice says that she pitied with his alter-ego, because the alter-ego is unhappy. Alice makes sure with Spencer that the alter-ego is his him-self. “Before, for the interest of his difference-yes. And as I didn’t disown him, as I knew him- which you at las, confronted with him in his difference, so cruelly didn’t, my dear- well, he must have been, you see, less dreadful to me. And it may have pleased him that I pitied him”She was beside him on her feet, but still holding his hand still with her arm supporting him. But though it all brought for him thus a dim light, “you “pitied” him?. He grudgingly, resentfully asked. He has been unhappy; he has been ravaged, she saidAnd haven’t I been unhappy? Am not I you’ve only to look at me! Ravaged?Ah I don’t say I like him better, she granted after a thought. But he’s grim, he’s worn and things have happened to him. He doesn’t make shift, for sight, with your charming monocle.‘No’ it struck Brydon: I couldn’t have sported mine downtown. They’d have guyed me there.His great convex pince- nez – I saw it, I recognised the kind is for poor ruined sight. And his poor right hand! Ah Brydon winced whether for his proved identity or for his lost fingers. Then “he has a million a year”. He lucidly added “ but he hasn’t you’And he isn’t no, he isn’t you she murmured as he drew her to his breast” (James;500)By long conversation above. Alice love Brydon even he has alter-ego. The alter-ego is other of Brydon, but this the other is not good. He don’t like his the other. This ‘the other’ is him-self when he lives in Europe. When he a capitalist. 2.2 England in 1909Henry James wrote “the Jolly corner” when the era Victorian had been end. When victorian era, the previous century, gathered speed in the nineteenth century as capitalist entrepreneur spurred the growth of industry and the railways. Men, women and children like were often harsh and sualid, to carry out task that were physically taxing and frequently dangerous. Hardship was especially marked in the mines, where technical progress came much more slowly than in the textile factories or engineering works (thehistorypress.co.uk) We can related the story and England 1909. As we know Spencer Brydon spent his age of productive in England. He comeback when he already elderly. The cruelty of capitalism he felt. Everyone want to be capitalist. He a hard worker, he collects money as much as he can. 2.3 Henry James behind the storyHenry James a native America but live in Europe and comeback in American when he getting older. James as author knowing for sure, what happens between society of England and American. Almost his short stories about his movement England- American that he reflecting in literature. He was born in the last of romanticism era. He little bit felt the euphoria that era when he was child. Even he realist, he still include element romantic in his story. Like in the Jolly Corner, Spencer Brydon and Alice love each other. With this story seems like we see the background of live of Henry James about his movement. Many of story of Victorian era, the style of language like the author talk with the reader. The author wants to the reader get moral value in the story they make, learning and know the conflict of society. Like in the story there statement of Brydon to Alice “he has a million a year” “he” in this case is alter-ego of Brydon. Even his alter-ego has million a years he never get Alice. In here, Henry James tell about true love, that love cannot be measured from money.Chapter IIIConclusionAfter the discussion, we can make a conclusion in this paper. Spencer Brydon has alter-ego. His alter-ego is reflecting his life when he lives in Europe. When he comeback in American he met his old friend Alice the girl who love him secretly. And then he loves Alice back. He didn’t like he ‘the other’ it means he didn’t like he past when he lives in Europe. Because of the supporting of Alice, Brydon can deal with his alter-ego. ReferenceChilders J, Hentzi G (eds). Columbia dictionary of modern literary and cultural criticism. New York: Columbia University Press; 1995.James, Henry. The New York Stories of Henry James. 2006. New York.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. 2000. Retrieved May 7, 2009.www.bbc.co.uk/hystory.brithis/victorianwww.britainnica.com/biography/henry-jameswww.thehistroypress.co.ukAlter-ego of Spencer Brydon in “The Jolly Corner” short storyBy Henry JamesSupporting lecturerProf. Dr. Juliasih Kusharyanto, S.U.Rezky Ayu Ameliah17/419346/PSA/08308Literary StudiesFaculty of Cultural StudiesYogyakarta2018

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