Unit 004 Child and Young Person Development0041.Age Physical Development Communication and Intellectual Social, Emotional and BehaviouralBirth – 12 months Child will develop motor reflexes, including grasping, blinking, rooting, stepping and sucking etc. The development starts when a baby begins to gain weight, begins to sit with support, then a child begins to chew, and bite down and reach for objects and turn towards bright lights. Furthermore, a child will then begin to sit by their self, crawl upstairs, drink from a cup and use a spoon, can clasp hands and is also triple the baby’s birth weight. Baby will cry to get your attention and to tell you what they want, will respond to your voice, the child will also begin to make different noises such as; dada, cooing, and babbles. Child will begin to vocalize pleasures and displeasures, will begin to imitate coughing, sneezing, hissing etc. Furthermore, then the child as they reach 12 months can say 2-8 words, can imitate animal noises, and responds to a couple of words other than their name At this age they begin to copy facial expressions, they can become unfriendly with strangers and experience separation anxiety.13 months – 2 years As the child is continuously growing the soft spot on top of head closes. The child can begin to imitate housework, can walk without help, then a child can begin to unzip jackets, turn one page at a time and string beads etc. The child still needs 10 to 12 hours of sleep each night and averagely gains 4 to 6 pounds yearly. Over the age of 1 the child begins to say more words, points to objects that they desire, and begins to understand the concept of up and down within their voice. As the child then reaches the age of 2 years, they begin to form short sentences, and can verbalise their needs of the toilet and for food and drink. Children this age normally begin to play next to children and are satisfied but wont share.3 years – 4 years As the child keeps growing the birth weight quadruples, all their primary teeth are complete, they can build towers with several blocks, and throw ball 4-5 feet. The child then can begin to run easily, balance between 5-8 seconds or more, can use the toilet, cuts with scissors, can draw a circle and can also jump from step to step. At this age the child communication grows, and they can use first and last names, and enjoy singing and rhymes. Their vocabulary increases to 900 words, asks more questions, can be understood by more than just family members, can begin to give basic answers to questions, and they also can say the sounds of more letters of the alphabet. Between 3-4 years the child begins learning to self-regulate, controlling urges and obey to appropriate behaviour. They also begin to understand their own feelings and empathy begins to show.5 years – 6 years The physical development between 4-6 years is that the child can cut in a straight line, begins to skip using alternate feet, can catch large balls, can walk backwards and can also start to bath self. As well as the child can now climb, skip, hop and gallop, also can learn to ride a bike. As the child hits the age of 5 they can speak sentences with all types of structures, can imitate building steps with blocks, prints letters, and can also draw a persons body with at least 8 body parts. At 5 the child can play alone, but can just prefer to play with others, and can do so nicely by taking turns and sharing. And then as the child reaches the age of 6 they can work increasingly effectively as part of a team.7 years – 12 years At this age a child can skate, ride bikes, their agility and coordination improve, and their motor skills improve. Girls at this age also have sudden growth spurts and begin puberty. At this age the child can communicate through their ability to read and write and can think in concrete terms. At the beginning of these years and then preteen, the child’s senses of right and wrong increase, also the child becomes more independent.13 years – 16 years Puberty is the main physical development at this age and the child can also increase in height and weight. Also, this includes in girls and boys growing pubic and underarm hair and sweating more. In girl’s menstruation begins and breast development. As they grow older, they develop their communication skills as they are then able to understand advanced levels of communication, they also then develop a high level of comprehension and vocabulary. Also, they may respond with an answer that is only one syllable (monosyllable). As the child reaches their teen years seeks to define themselves independent from his parents. Also, there is a increase of wanting acceptance from peers and that it is crucial.17years – 19 years At this age girls are normally fully developed, and boys are continuing to gain height, weight, muscle mass and body hair. At this age of late teens, they become more of a leader within groups, and are also beginning carers where they are becoming more interactive with people. At this age it is common to explore different identities, which can be to fit in with a social group.0041.2Different aspects of development can affect one another, some examples are the following.A baby that is born premature can affect the rate at which the baby can develop. This is because the baby can then develop slowly and become behind other children, this can lead to long term problems such as learning problems. This can be severe, mild or somewhere in between. As well as this can also cause hearing and visual problems but are normally screened early while still in hospital. The eye condition if caused when premature is called Retinopathy of Prematurity which can cause vision impairment or blindness. Also, a baby being premature can cause feeding and digestive problems, which means they might have to be fed with iv fluids through a tube for several weeks. This can also then lead to long-term feeding problems such as food refusal and slow growth, which can then lead to surgery in some cases.Furthermore, also being born with difficulties such as down syndrome, will lead to speech issues for the child. As well as being born with dyslexia a condition that affects literacy, needs a wheelchair, or autism which can affect them detecting tones of a voice and facial expressions. These can all cause them to be discriminated in the future and can then lead into bullying and bring down their confidence and affect their development. Similarly, also being born with cerebral palsy can affect your development because it can affect the movement, posture and coordination. This then can also lead to being very behind and being discriminated against and cause them to separate themselves from others.0042.1Different kinds of influences can affect children and young people’s development such as background, health and environment. Background can include how they live such as being travellers, this can impact them because if they are traveling they make friends, then move, so its harder to make real friends. Also, if a child has had a bad relationship in the past with a relative or a bad childhood this could significantly impact a child’s development. For the reason of that the child can have less self-esteem and can also feel like to be loved and heard that they need to be bad. Furthermore, can also lead a child into crime, but if the help that is needed is given at an early stage this can be helped and stopped.In addition, with health, if it is not generally looked after then it can cause an impact on development because they can become overweight, underweight, have chronic malnutrition or specific nutritional deficiencies or serious health problems which can have intensive effects on a child. However, if they were to have good health it would impact positively on their development, for example, they could be active and participate in the many learning experiences that make a child develop well. The extent the child is affected clearly depends on what the health issues they have are.Furthermore, environment can also impact the development in positive and negative ways. For the positive way an example is when a child is brought up in a clean house with lots of outdoor space and places to explore to ask questions and gain learning opportunities. Also, if they are nurtured well and around other nice and positive children to gain and grow a relationship and learn from these experiences. Whereas if a child was brought up in a overcrowded and poor household this can majorly impact the child’s development as they could not be getting the attention and needs seen to, also can become underweight and begin to gain health issues that wouldn’t be seen in a positive and loving home. Similarly, if they grow up in a deprived area with high rates of crime this can impact development as that’s all they see, so that’s all they know.0042.2It is very important to recognise and respond to concerns about children and young people’s development, this is due to the quicker the issues are recognised, the quicker it can be assisted with. If the issue isn’t dealt with when it is raised the child could get worse and need more treatment or help in the future, so a worsened outcome, due to not being helped when the issue was raised. When you are reporting an issue, you can see within the child it must be done professionally and in such a manner that follows the procedures in place. You should always write down detailed notes when responding to this, so you don’t put words or actions that are false on a child. For example, also it is important to take note on a child changing such as being interactive and happy, but then starts coming in quiet and looking sad. This is important because this can mean that there has been a significant change in their life like a new sibling, death, divorce etc. that’s impacting the child’s development.0043.1Most children and young people experience several transitions throughout their life, one is puberty which is experienced by all. Puberty can be confusing and worrying to some children as they develop hair growth, voice changes, and body parts (breasts). This can make a child have mood swings and become argumentative as they can’t control what is happening with their body.Other transitions can be moving school or going from home into nursery, this can be very nervous for any child as they feel that they will need to make new friends and that they won’t be familiar to the surroundings. But this can be a good way to encourage a child to do more clubs which can help them find new friends. Also moving from primary to secondary school is a big transition as they must learn how to be taught more formally, wider range of subjects and much bigger schools and rooms.Furthermore, another transition could be moving to a new house or a friend moving to a new house which can make a child feel anxious and nervous, due to them being taken out of familiar surroundings, this can also make them feel lonely and lead into depression in severe cases. In addition, also a lot of children have new siblings arrive in their family which can cause jealousy between the siblings and the child may want attention, so acts out.0043.2As well as there are several transitions that only some children and young people will experience, one of these could be bereavement, the loss of a family member, which can be very serious and lead into a downward spiral for some children who can not deal with the death. A child that experiences this could feel insecure and lonely and can stick with them and stop them thinking about the future.Another transition that not all children will experience could be the diagnosis of a medical condition or disease. This can make a child feel jealous of others as they feel different and lead to them misbehaving and acting out. Divorce is also another transition that only some children will experience which can make them feel confused and frustrated, as the environment might change, and they could only be living with one parent or not seeing one parent as often.New stepparents or moving into care is also a big transition that not all children experience, this can make them feel scared, dismissive and frustrated. This is because there is a new person in their home that they are not all familiar with, and they could be receiving less attention then before and being argumentative.0043.3Transitions may affect a child or young person’s behaviour and development; all these transitions have some affect on the child and young person. For example, with a divorce this can potentially have a big impact on their development socially, behaviourally and emotionally. This is because they become more argumentative and feel that it is their fault, so can become withdrawn from their family situation.