2.1 Understand the pattern of development that would normally be expected for children and young people from birth – 19 years.Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development that would normally be expected in children and young people birth to 19 years.The sequence of development is divided into different aspects of a child’s development. These areas are Physical, Social, Emotional, Intellectual and Cognitive, also Language.PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTThis is usually split into two parts, these are…Fine Motor Skills which is the use of smaller muscles including pincer and palmar grasp examples of which are the way a child holds a pencil/crayon and picking up finger foods.Gross Motor Skills which is the use of larger muscles, balance and coordination. Activities include crawling, walking, running, throwing and catching a ball.Stages of Physical Development1 Month Head still unsteady.Hands held in tight fists.Grasps an object when touched on the palm.Head and eyes move together.3 Months Kicks legs and waves arms.Can lift and turn head when lying on front.Watches own hand movements, plays with own hands.Holds rattle for a few seconds when placed in palm of hand.4 Months Uses arms for support when lying on front.Turns from back to side.Holds onto and shakes small items.6 Months Sits with support.Rolls over.Pushes head, neck and chest off the floor when on front.Uses palmar grasp.Passes toy from hand to hand.9 Months Sits alone without support.Reaches for toys when sitting.May crawl or shuffle.Pokes at small items with index finger.Uses pincer grasp to pick up small items.Will hold a small toy in each hand.12 Months Stands alone.Walks holding on.Crawls or shuffles.Holds cup with help.Uses neat pincer grasp.Enjoys self-feeding.Starts to show hand preference.Bangs 2 cubes together.18 Months Walks alone.Pushes and pulls toys when walking.Walks down stairs with hand held.Tries to kick a ball.Rolls and throws a ball.Squats to pick up objects.Helps with dressing and undressing.Uses a spoon.Holds crayon in tripod grasp and scribbles.Turns handles.Pulls off shoes.2 Years Walks up and down stairs.Climbs on furniture.Builds a tower of 6 bricks.Uses a spoon for self-feeding.Puts shoes on.Draws circles and dots.Starts to use preferred hand.3 Years Stands and walks on tip toe.Can kick a ball confidently.Jumps from low steps.Pedals a tricycle.Turns single pages in a book.Can draw a face.Can undo buttons.Threads large beads.4 Years Can aim and throw a large ball.Walks backwards.Runs and hops.Builds a large tower.Can brush own teeth.Will button and unbutton clothes.Can do a 12-piece puzzle.5 Years Skips.Runs quickly.Easily dresses and undresses.Hits a ball with a bat.Draws a person with head, body and legs.Can do a 20-piece jigsaw.Forms letters and writes own name.Accurately uses scissors.6-7 Years Enjoys hopping and bike riding.Balances on a wall.Ties and unties shoelaces.Builds intricate models.Controls pencil in a small area.8 years plus Improves physical skills that are already established.Puberty begins.Body starts to go through physical changes as children grow and develop.SOCIAL and EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENTSocial and Emotional development is how a child can form secure relationships, regulate their emotions, the ability to make decisions and knowing what behaviour is acceptable.From birth a child will form close relationships with the familiar people in their lives such as parents, siblings and close immediate family. These loving relationships provide them with a sense of comfort, safety and confidence. They will also teach children how to form friendships, communicate their emotions and acceptable behaviours in the home environment.Once the child comes into regular contact with settings outside of the home environment such as a nursery or school, they will learn how to interact with their peers, and the rules that society deems acceptable and unacceptable throughout life.Stages of Social and Emotional developmentFrom birth Responds positively to main carer.Imitates facial expressions.Stares at bright shiny objects.1 Month Gazes intently at carers.Social smile at carers 4 Months Smiles, engages and vocalises with carers.Cries when play has stopped.6 Months Starts to show an interest in other babies.Becomes more interested in social interaction, dependant on the amount of time spent with other children.Shows fear of strangers and distress at separation from carer.Interacts differently with various family members.Uses comfort object such as a blanket or soft toy.Seeks attention.9 Months Very interested in all around.Recognises familiar and unfamiliar faces.May cry when familiar faces aren’t around.Shows stranger anxiety.Starts to prefer some toys over others.1 Year More demanding and assertive, can be emotionally volatile.Temper tantrums may start.Unhappy with changes in routine.Expresses rage at being told “no”.Will play alone.Starting to develop object permanence Is more interactive with carers, will hand you a book or a toy.Play favourites with familiar people.18 Months to 2 YearsShows stranger shyness.Dislikes changes in routine.Starts toilet training.Has tantrums when upset.Has separate sense of self.Has little idea of sharing and a strong sense of mine.Begins simple pretend play, often copying adults or other children.May show concern when another child is upset.Engages in parallel play which is playing alongside others rather than with them.Becomes emotionally stable but is still prone to mood swings.Learning to separate from carer for short periods.Knows own identity.3 Years Greater social awareness.Will play in twos or threes, sharing ideas.May have close friends.A lot of mixed play with other sexes.Stable and emotionally secure.Friendly to other children.Increasing independence but still needs adults help.Strong sense of gender identity.Less anxious about separation.Plays alongside others.4 Years Enjoys cooperative and dramatic play.Understands cooperation and competition.Responds to reasoning.Can take turns.Enjoys independence but still seeks comfort and reassurance.5 Years Becomes engrossed in activities.Develops fears such as the dark, things under the bed.Concerned about being disliked.Has a good sense of self awareness.Enjoys playing with others.More conversational and independent.6-7 Years Able to form friendships.Very supportive of each other.Plays in separate sex groups.Fairly independent and confident.Increase in sense of what is right and wrong.8 Years plus Friendships become important.Concerned with how others see them.Often unsure about changes in settings.INTELLECTUAL and COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTThis is about how a child learns, thinks and develops ideas to make sense of the world they live in. influenced strongly by experiences the child has such as learning the names of foods or colours can only be possible if the child has been told by others.An important part of intellectual development is language and communication as this helps a child to learn about the world around them. They also learn through other areas which are physical also social and emotional. Physical through using their senses by touching, tasting and listening, also through play. Socially and emotionally by playing with other children and being around other people. Stages of Intellectual and Cognitive DevelopmentBirth Blinks in reaction to bright light.Turns to soft light.Stares at carer.Cries when basic needs require attention.1 Month Stares at soft light.Gaze caught by and follows dangling ball.3 Months Follows movements of large and small objects.6 Months Very curious, easily distracted by movements.Immediately fixes sight on small objects close by and reaches out to grasp them.Puts everything in mouth.Watches toys fall from hand within range of vision.9 Months Looks in correct direction for falling toys.12 Months Drops toys deliberately and watches them fall.Looks in correct place for toys that have rolled out of sight.Recognises familiar people at 6 metres.18 Months Builds tower of 3 cubes when shown.Turns pages of books, several at a time, enjoys picture books and can point to a named object.Points to interesting objects outside.Points to parts of the body.3 Years Copies circle and cross, draws man with a head.Matches two or three primary colours.Paints with large brush, cuts with scissors.By 5 years Copies square, and a range of letters – some spontaneously.Draws man with head, body, arms, legs and features, also a house.Colours pictures neatly.Names primary colours and matches ten or more colours.Knows the time of day for basic activities, such as breakfast, snack time, bedtime.Matches symbols, letters and numbers.Can decide on lighter and heavier objects.Understands, in front of, behind and next to.Counts to 20By 6 years Ability to write developing, can write some words and copy others.Reads simple books.Increasing sophistication in drawing and painting.Knows birthday.Sight reads ten or more words.Can predict next events.Can count to 100. LINK Excel.Sheet.12 “https://d.docs.live.net/e356249dfd8f5b3f/Documents/sequence of physical development.xlsx” “Sheet1!R1C1:R83C2” a f 4 h * MERGEFORMAT 6-8 Years Able to understand concept of conservation, for example the amount of playdough stays the same if you make a ball or a snake.Developing the ability to think about several things at once.Enjoys games and rules.Understands the use of symbols in maths, writing and so on.Great curiosity in relation to the workings of their environment.8-12 Years Can reason and apply logic to problems.Can transfer information from one situation and use in another.Becoming more creative in play.Reading and writing confidently.Increasing preferences for subjects.13-16 Years Developing ability to think abstractly.Will question sources of information.Becoming more globally aware.Clear preferences for arts and science.Choices relating to future education and careers being thought about.LANGUAGE and COMMUNICATIONEarly language and communication skills are vital for children’s success in school and beyond. These skills include the ability to understand others and express themselves using words, gestures and facial expressions. Reading is one way to encourage a child’s language skills. Hearing words and looking at pictures will help a child understand that both are connected. Parents and caregivers also play a big role in developing a child’s language.Stages of Language and Communication Development.These stages of development are divided into two parts.Pre-Linguistic – from birth to 12 months is when a child begins to say their first words.Linguistic – from 12 months onwards words are now used with meaning.Birth to 4 weeks Cries when basic needs require attention, such as hunger, tiredness or distress.1 Month Freezes when a bell is rung gently close to ear, moves head towards the sound.Stops crying at sound of human voice unless they are very upset.Coos in response to carers voice.3 Months Becomes quiet and turns head towards sound of rattle near headVocalises when spoken to and when alone.6 Months Makes singsong vowel sounds such as ‘aah-aah’, ‘goo-goo’.Laughs, chuckles and squeals aloud in play.Responds differently to different tones of voice.Starts to respond to noises out of sight with correct visual response.9 Months Vocalises for communication, shouts for attention.Babbles loudly and tunefully using words in long strings such as dad-dad, baba.Copies adult vocal sounds.Understands ‘no’ and ‘bye bye’.1 Year Knows own name.Babbles loudly in ‘conversation’ using most vowel sounds.Understands about 20 words in context such as dog, cup, food.Understands simple instructions such as clap hands, wave bye bye, where’s your hat?12 – 18 Months First words appear – has 6-20 recognisable words, understands many more.Copies last word in the sentence.Attempts to join in with nursery rhymes.Responds to simple instructions, ‘shut the door’, ‘find your shoes’.18-24 Months Uses two words linked together.Will use more than 200 words by aged 2 years.Makes simple two word sentences, ‘all gone’.Refers to own, talks to themselves during play.Uses key essential words but misses out connecting words in sentences.2-3 Years Expanding vocabulary fast.Holds simple conversations.Enjoys repeating favourite stories or rhymes.Counts to 10.3-4 Years Copies adult speech.Is understood by strangers.Forms short grammatically correct sentences.Asks ‘why?’, what? And how?Knows parts of the body, animals and foods.4-8 Years Speech is fluent and correct, uses descriptive language.Can give full name, address and birth date.Loves telling jokes, singing, stories.Rapidly expanding their vocabulary using 5000 words by aged 5.Recognises new words and will ask what they mean.Will copy accents heard.8 Years plus By this age most children are fluent speakers, readers and writers of their language.Increased use of peer influenced, coded language or text speech. Includes lol (laugh out loud) etc.Analyse the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the distinction is important.The sequence of development is the order in which children accomplish the milestones set out as they grow, the charts in question 1.1 show the age and order in which children should be achieving each milestone. An example of sequence is that a child should be able to hold their head up before learning to sit without help, a child also needs to achieve walking before they are able to run. A milestone which is not achieved could have a knock on effect with the milestones that follow and cause a delay in the sequence.The rate of development is about the speed in which a child reaches the milestones. Children can achieve certain milestones quicker than others such as language or walking, a child should be walking alone at 18 months according to development charts in previous question, in my setting there is a child who is able to walk alone with confidence at 12 months, she also walks backwards which should be achieved at 4 years, in my experience I have seen children under 2 years achieve this milestone. It is important to note the difference between sequence and rate because all children are different and will not follow the sequence set out for them and will achieve milestones at their own pace, also other factors may affect the rate milestones are reached.Analyse the reasons why the children and young people’s development may not follow the pattern normally expected.There are a few reasons why a child may be delayed in achieving the developmental milestone expected of them, these include…Children with a physical or mental disability will find learning to do things more difficult than their peers and will need support to make things easier for them such as being taught a different way, help from adults or the use of equipment such as walking aids or adapted writing or computer equipment. A child who is limited physically with a disability, injury or lack of opportunity to play could prevent them from reaching certain development milestones – walking, running, ball play. A child with emotional problems may have issues with social development and interacting with others, also a lack of concentration may be a factor.The home environment can play a vital role in all aspects of a child’s development, if this environment is less than ideal it can have an effect on the child reaching the predicted milestone, for example if a parent neglects a child it could have an effect on the child’s social and emotional development, language delays through lack of social interaction in the home from an early age.Cultural factors can also influence development due to language barriers and social disadvantages.