Unit 2 : Promoting anti-discriminatory practice.Ethics is morals and principles and it effects how people make their decisions, principles is rules and values. Unethical behaviour is an action that isn’t considered morally right, for example stealing and abusive behaviour. We need ethical principles in health and social care as it is safeguarding and protecting the service users from hard, there are four principles of health care ethics these are: justice – this principle states that all decisions should have fairness, for benefit or burden. For example if a patient is about to have a major operation that has a lot of side effects it is only fair that the doctors tell them about it so that they know what they are going on for. Autonomy – this refers to the right of patients to have control over their own body, the service can advise them in what’s right for them but, if the service tries to persuade them into making that decision can be a violation to the principal. For example a patient has the right to make the decision if they want to take a new treatment or not and the service can only advise them on the treatment without influencing their decision. Beneficence – this principle says that health care providers must do everything they can to benefit the patient through every situation. All treatment and procedures must be done to benefit the patient, for example a child came to the hospital with a open fracture on her leg and it is significantly bleeding. The patient requests a urgent treatment as she is in pain, if the situation is life threatening then an amputation would be the best for her as it would take the risk of her life away. Another example may be stopping a patient from smoking and starting a exercise program. Non- maleficence – this principle means to do no harm, it is intended to be the end goal of all practitioners decorations and also means that all medical providers must also consider if other people could be harmed by the decision made. An example of this is stopping a medication that is shown to be harmful or refusing to provide a treatment as it has shown to be ineffective.Is it important to put the service user first because they are vulnerable and need help, an example of how a service may do this is by fulfilling their needs like giving them choices, making sure the nurses give everything that the service user needs. Active support is a proven model of care that enables and empowers people with intellectual disabilities to participate fully in all aspects of their lives, this can be done by actively supporting someone by encouraging them in what they are doing. Supporting needs and preferences means supporting a person’s likes and dislikes, you can meet a service users needs by making sure you give them everything they need and you can meet their preferences by asking them what they prefer for example when it comes to them eating, you can ask them what they prefer to eat. Empowering individuals means having qualities that gives a person or group the means to take more control in their life and becoming more stronger and independant. We can empower service users by giving them the power to manage their own health and make decisions about their health. A hospital can promote someone’s rights by allowing them to have access to the support and care they need regardless of their circumstances, choices can be promoted by allowing the service user to be more in control of their care and treatment. Well-being can be promoted be protecting the service user from abuse and neglect. Balancing individual rights with the rights of others means that the service provider should be able to fulfil one’s needs by not disturbing the others for example, in a residential home if a resident wants the volume of the music on they should be provided with headphones so that the other residents isn’t disturbed by the noise. There are many conflicts that may occur in health and social care for example staff to patient, this may occur do to the patient not agreeing with the staff or the staff may not be meeting the patients needs which may lead to conflict. Another example may be in a residential home where a relative came to visit and they don’t like the way the service user is being treated which leads to staff to relative conflict. Another example may be if staff have misunderstanding between them which can cause staff to staff arguments, this can be caused if one staff is doing more work than another then, this can cause them to conflict. This links to discrimination as people can say things they don’t mean and say things about others religion or race. One example of conflict involving discrimination is if a drunk man came to the hospital and started harassing the nurses, this could be resolved by moving them to a different room. Another example is if a patient is arguing with the service providers due to them not being happy about something then, this could be resolved by talking it out with them and finding a solution. If a nurse is being racist to a patient due to their race and this causes an conflict then this can be resolved by giving an complaint to the service. Within the service there will be at times where you have to challenge a person’s behaviour because it may be potentially discriminatory, this can be done by reporting the situation or listen to what the other person is saying so that you don’t discriminate and also by stating your position. Discrimination is prevented through policies and procedures as it is protecting and safeguarding everyone at the service, this means it keeps the service and care providers in order as they are aware of preventing discrimination within practices. Staff training and development prevent discrimination from happening in a service as it shows staff how to approach and deal with discrimination and it allows them to be trained in how to deal with challenging discrimination that can happen in a service. Challenging inappropriate behaviour can be overcome by having a positive body language and having a positive impact on the person that is being inappropriate. If someone is using inappropriate language in the service then, there should be zero tolerance and should hear the member out. When discrimination happens in the service the care provider should tell everything that has happened to the line manager so that any further discrimination can be prevented from happening again. Upbring can make putting anti discriminatory practices into place as it depends on how an individual is brought up and their experiences for example what their parents have taught them and also children are easily manipulated so this can affect their upbringing. This can make anti discriminatory difficult as if a child was brought up in a racist household then, they will think that this is normal and also discriminate people who are different to them. People stereotype sexuality, religion, race, immigrants and women for example some people think that men are strong and powerful than women and that they are insensitive etc but in reality everyone is the same. Some people believe and stereotype religion for example, some people think that all muslims are terrorists because of all the things that is going on in the world. Some people believe that people from a different race is lower than them just because they are a different race, for example if someone has a darker skin colour some people will instantly think that they are better than them and that the person that is a different race doesn’t belong here. This also links to immigrants because people think that immigrants don’t belong here and should go back to their own country and also some think that immigrants are here to “steal their jobs” but that really isn’t the case. There are so many stereotypes of women for example women isn’t fit to work and should stay at home with their children. If the NHS introduced a new equality policy, someone who is homophobic wouldn’t take any notice to it as they might not want to against their upbringing, this may be if they have been brought up being homophobic they might find it uncomfortable around gay people and might discriminate due to this. They also might find it uncomfortable as thy might not be used to seeing homosexual people and also they might be discriminating as they are used to seeing their family doing it. Some experiences lead to people being tolerant for example, a women may have a bad experience with racism as she was attacked due to her religion and due to this it may make her tolerant and not understanding from them kinds of people. Due to bad experiences some people think that everyone is the same so this is why they become more tolerant and not understanding, it causes them to hold up a wall against people as they might not want to go through the same experience again. A person with a strong personal opinion can affect anti-discrimination as they may refuse to listen to any other viewpoints, the person may disagree or have discriminatory thoughts againsts people under protected characteristics and their personal opinion may cause them to argue about their view and deny everything they don’t agree with. Stress and stressful situations can affect anti-discriminatory practices as a person who is under loads of stress and pressure may end up losing their patience and end up saying something discriminatory. For example, a nurse has a patient that is rude, demanding and doesn’t care about the nurses feeling may cause the nurse to become more angry and say something discriminatory to the patient. Religion can affect anti-discriminatory practises as religion discrimination is when you are treated differently because of your religion or belief or lack of religious belief. An example of this is when a person is being harassed when going to work at a care home, but is being discriminated against because they are muslim. Culture affects anti-discriminatory practices as if different cultures are understood then, there would be less discrimination against it. For example, some cultures believe that women should stay at home and look after children but this isnt sexist just a different way of life. Developing greater self-awareness and tolerance of differences means increasing their self-awareness and tolerance of differences which makes them more accepting, it means to know the differences between all individuals and to understand that all individuals aren’t the same and have different needs. It is important as it shows the staff how to anti-discrimination and know when discrimination is happening within the service and making sure it doesn’t happen again. Tolerance ensures that everyone in the service has equal opportunities. There are three main rules for the care value base which are: promoting equality and diversity, promoting individual rights/ beliefs and maintaining confidentiality. By committing to these rules it means that you are not discriminating any service users and also means that the service should meet the individuals needs and commit to their rights. Maintaining confidentiality means to keep the service users information safe unless it needs to be said for their safety or health, committing to the rules is important as it keeps the service users safe and out of any risk and harm. It also makes the work for the staff easier as they will know how to not discriminate by following these rules. Careful use of language means that the service providers needs to be aware of the service user’s language and how they communicate with them to ensure that they are discriminating. It is important that the service providers are careful with their language so that they don’t say anything that might affect the service users and also it is important to use the right use of language because they you don’t then you won’t be able to communicate with the service users properly which can lead to miscommunication, wrong medication and also not meeting their needs. It promotes anti-discrimination as it allows clear communication which the service user and provider both understands. Working with legal, ethical and policy guidelines means that there is a lot of guidelines to follow in health and social care and it means that the service providers have to use these guideline to keep the service a safe place, it also means that they have laws to follow which allows them to also keep the service users safe. This als allows the service providers to know the laws that they need to follow which reduces the risk of discrimination.