Unit 201

Table of Contents

Unit 201 Understanding Children’s Development1.1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include:Development can be described as the gaining of skills in a child’s life for example: social and emotional development, intellectual and communication and speech, however, growth can also come under this umbrella term, this is the height, weight and other measurable areas that start from birth up until early adulthood.a) Physical Development is the skills we develop as humans that help us to function in day to day life, these include the use of gross motor skills which is the development and use of the large muscles e.g. legs and arms, and fine motor skills which is the development and use of the smaller muscles for example the hands and fingers.b) Communication Development is the skills we learn to communicate with friends, family, and all other people. This starts in the womb when a baby will respond to loud noises, lights and distress by moving. A new-born baby communicates through crying and quietening, this is how they tell us that they are hungry, cold, tired, bored or even just needing a cuddle. The speed in which an infant will progress with speech is astounding, by 8 months an infant will be able to babble and coo, by 18 months he/she will be able to use between 30-40 words! However, this of course depends on the child and the rate in which they are progressing. The two stages of language development are;Pre-linguistic: the stage which happens up until around 12 months when a child starts to say their first wordsLinguistic: words that are used with meaning from 12 months onwardsc) Intellectual Development is the development of understanding, memory and our ability to concentrate. It is this area of development which is strongly influenced on the child’s environment and experiences, for example a child will only know the names of animals if they have been told them. Much research has gone into the research of how children develop intellectually, some notable researchers were Piaget and Bruner. Piaget showed that a child’s intelligence was a result of a natural sequence of stages and was strongly influenced by the child’s environment and the level of interaction they received, however, Bruner believed that as children develop, they use different ways to interpret the word around them. Enactive representation involves them using their bodies. E.g. how we use our hands to describe how something looks such as a spiral. Iconic thinking is how we think of pictures in our mind before saying them out loud, such as when describing a holiday. The final stage is the semantic, when the full range of language is developed and we can discuss and describe information.d) Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development is the way in which we develop our self-image and identity, our relationships and feelings and the skills in which we need to function in the modern society and with others.Socialisation is an important stage in development as this is how we learn to cope within a family structure but also with friends and peers and depending on various different factors such as, background or environment this stage could differ greatly in its definition.•Primary socialisation: this is the socialisation that takes place within the family and begins within the first few years of a child’s life. This is where we learn to interact with others and learn what is right and wrong.•Secondary socialisation: this stage starts when children start to come in regular contact with other people outside of the home environment. This includes playgroup, nursery, and school and continues throughout a child’s life.Attachment and bonding The deep and complex feelings between parents, carers or their children develops through a process of attachment and bonding. Attachment and bonding starts during the early months of a child’s life by a number of things including skin on skin contact, talking and listening to parents voices, feeding, bathing, play, eye contact and smells.Self-concept and personal identitySelf-concept and personal identity are closely linked to the quality of upbringing and parenting in a child’s early years. Many youths and young adults who carry out petty and serious crimes have had poor experiences as children and they often have a very negative self-concept.On the following pages I have used a table to outline the areas and stages of development in children and young people, however, it is important to note that not all children progress at the same rate and that environmental and health factors may effect this pattern of development to various degrees which is why I have been mindful to use the terms ‘may’ ‘can’ or ‘could’.Age Physical Development (gross and fine motor skills) (P) Social and Emotional Development (SE) Intellectual Development (I) Language and communication skills (LC)Birth to 4 weeks Lays on back able to turn head to one side Head lags when pulled up to sit Has primitive reflexes i.e. sucking, rooting, grasping and stepping Responds positively to main carerCan imitate facial expressionsStare at shiny bright objects Will blink in reaction to bright lightsMay turn to soft lightStares at carerWill often cry when basic needs require attention Birth to 4 weeks Cries when basic needs require attention e.g. hunger, tiredness, distress1 month Still not developed full head control Hands in tight fists Can grasp objects when they touch their palms Head and eye control Gazes at carersSocial smile at carers May stare at a soft lightWill have their gaze caught and will sometimes follow 1 month‘Freezes’ when a bell is rung gently close to the ear, moves head towards soundStops crying at the sound of a human voice3 months Can kick legs and wave arms Can lift and turn head when on their tummy’s Can watch the movement and play with own hands Can hold light toys if placed in the hand Follows movement of large and small objects 3 months Becomes quiet and turns head towards the sound of a rattle near the headVocalises when spoken to and when alone4 months Uses arms for support when laying on stomach Turns from back to side Can hold on to and shake small toys/items Smiles engages and can vocalise with carers 6 months Makes singsong vowel sounds e.g. ‘aah’ ‘goo’Can laugh, chuckle or squeal during playResponds differently to different tones of voiceStarts to respond to noises out of sight with correct visual response6 months Can sit with support Roll over Can push head, neck and chest off the floor when laid on front Starts to show interest in other babies, smilesStarts to become more interested in social interaction depending on the amount of time spent with other children and his/her personality Very curious and easily distractedWill often fix sight on small objects that are close by and try to grasp themWill try and put most things in their mouth9 months Vocalises for communication, shouts for attentionBabbles loudly using dual syllables in long strings e.g. ‘dad-dad’, ‘baba’, ‘mam-mam’Imitates adult vocal sounds e.g. coughsUnderstands ‘no’ and ‘bye-bye’9 months Can sit alone without support Reach out for toys when sitting May crawl or shuffle Can poke small items with index finger Can use index and middle fingers with thumb in a pincer motion to pick up small itemsCan take and hold a small item in each handCan put cubes in box when shown Very interested in everything going on around themCan recognise familiar and unfamiliar facesShows stranger anxiety Will look in the correct direction for falling toys1 year Knows own nameCan express loudly in conversations, including most vowel soundsUnderstands about 20 words in context, e.g. cup, dog, dinner and understands simple messages e.g. ‘clap hands’ and ‘where are your shoes?’1 year Can stand alone and is starting to walk whilst holding on (cruising)Is starting to be mobile through walking or shufflingEnjoys self-feeding and hold cup with helpCan pick up most things off the floor using the pincer gripStarting to show hand preferenceCan put cubes in a box when shown Can be more demanding and assertiveTemper tantrums may beginMay not like changes to routineCan become disgruntled when told ‘no’Can distinguish between self and others, however can still be egocentric (only concerned with his/her selfWill play alone – solitary playStarting to develop object permanence Will often drop toys deliberately and watch them fall, this is called castingWill look in the correct place for toys that have rolled out of their sightMay recognise familiar people from 6 metres 12-18 months First words appear- may be able to use up to 60 recognisable words and understand many moreRepetition of words is prominentTries joining in with songs/nursery rhymesResponds to instructions simple in manner e.g. ‘where are your shoes?’, ‘clap your hands’18 months Can generally walk alonePush and pull toys when walkingCan walk down stairs with hand heldCan try to kick a ball, roll and throw ballCan squat to pick up objects off the floorCan assist with dressing and undressingCan use a spoonCan hold a crayon in a primitive tripod grasp and scribbleTurn handles Pull off shoes Shows shyness towards strangersMight not like changes to routineMay start toilet trainingMay start to have tantrums when upsetMay have a separate sense of self-egocentricLittle sense of sharing, most things will be ‘mine’ May be able to build a tower of up to 3 cubes when shownCan turn pages in a book, enjoys picture books and may point to a named objectMay point to interesting objects outsideMay be able to point to parts of the body 18-24 months May be able to use two words linked togetherMay be able to use up to 200 words by age 2May be able to make simple two word sentencesRefers to their own name, often talks to themselves during playHas telegraphic speech which is where mainly essential words will be used and connecting words will be missed2 years Walk up and down stairs with both feet on one step, can climb on furnitureCan build towers with bricksCan use a spoon for self-feedingCan put slip on shoes onCan draw circles and dotsCan start to use preferred hand May enjoy other children’s company but may be reluctant to share toysMay show concern when another child is upsetEngages in parallel playRemains egocentricStarting to become emotionally stableLearning to separate from main carer for short periods e.g. while attending nursery 2-3 years May have a rapidly expanding vocabularyMay be able to hold simple conversationsWill like favourite stories repeatedMay be able to count to ten3 years Can stand and walk on tiptoesCan kick a ball with confidenceCan jump from low stepsPedal a tricycleTurn pages in a bookCan draw a faceCan undo buttonsCan thread large beads Greater social awarenessMay start to play in twos and threes, sharing ideasMay have close friendsStarting to become stable and emotionally secureFriendly towards other childrenIncrease in independence but will still need support from adultsFears loss of carersLess anxious in regards to separationPlays alongside others Copies circles and crosses, may be able to draw a person with a headMay be able to match roughly 3 or more primary coloursMay paint with a large brush and cut with scissors 3-4 years Imitation of adult speech may occurMe be understood by strangersMay be able to for short, grammatically correct sentencesWill ask many questions such as ‘why?’, ‘what?’, ‘how?Will know parts of the body4 years Can aim and throw and catch a large ballCan walk backwards and on a lineRun and hopCan brush own teethCan cut around an object with scissorsButton and unbutton clothes May enjoy co-operative and dramatic playUnderstands co-operation and competitionMay respond to reasoningCan take turnsEnjoys their independence but will still need comfort and reassurance 4-8 years Speech may be fluent and correct, may use descriptive languageCan give full name, age, birthday and addressEnjoys jokes, singing, rhymes etc…Rapidly expanding vocabulary, up to 5000 wordsRecognises new words and will be curious of their meaningProduces most sounds with some difficulty of some letter groups5 years SkipsRun quicklyEasily dress and undressHit a ball with a batDraw a person with a head, body and legs, and a houseCan do a 20-piece jigsawForm letters and write own nameAccurately use scissors May become engrossed in activitiesMay develop fears i.e. of ghosts and things under the bedConcerned about being dislikedGood sense of self-awareness developed May be able to copy squares and a range of letters, some spontaneouslyMay be able to draw a man with head, legs, arms and features. May also be able to draw structures such as a houseMay be able to name 10 or more primary coloursUnderstand in front of, behind, etc… 8 years onwardsMost children will be fluent speakers, readers and writersIncreasing use of peer influenced language, e.g. slang words6-7 years Enjoys hopping, bike riding, roller blading and skatingBalance on a wall or beamFiner manipulation of building bricks, jigsaws etc…Can sew simple stitchesTie and untie lacesBuild intricate modelsControl pencil in a small area and do detailed drawings Able to form firm friendshipsVery supportive of each other and may be able to play complex gamesMay show preference to playing in separate sex groupsFairly independent and confidentIncrease in sense of morality (right or wrong) Ability to write is developing, is able to write some words and will copy othersMay be able to read simple booksWill be getting much better at drawing and paintingMay be able to sight read 10 or more wordsMay be able to count up to 100developing the ability to think about several things at once 8-12 years Improves physical skills that have already developedPuberty starts at around age 10 for girls with a growth spurt and an increase in body strength Friendships become very important and are generally same sex – not alwaysMay show concerns about what others think of themOften unsure about changes to their surroundings Can apply logic and reason to problemsCan transfer information from one situation to use in anotherMay become more creative in playReading and writing confidentlyWill have an increased preference for subjects 13-16 years An increase in reaction times and co-ordination happens with brain developmentFor most girls puberty is complete at around age 14 and periods startFor most boys puberty happens between the ages 13-16 Body changes may effect self esteemNeed to resolve changes into adulthoodSome are more assured about changes in settings than othersMay want to spend more time with friends than familyPeer pressure is often a significant influence Will be developing the ability to think abstractlyWill question where the sources for information comes fromBecoming more globally awareWill be developing clear preferences for arts and sciences and thinking of their choices in regards to future education and careers 1.2 Describe with examples how different aspects of development can affect one anotherMany aspects of development can affect one another as they are all interconnected, for example if a child comes to live in the UK and speaks a foreign language, this may then lead to a delay in language development as well as some speech issues as they will find it difficult to interact, this can also then lead on affect their social and emotional development as they may become frustrated or upset at being unable to communicate efficiently with their peers. Another example would be if a child is behind in reading, this may affect their social development as when it comes to group reading as a less developed child, mixing with others may be difficult and their emotional development as they may feel embarrassed and lack confidence.2.1 Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s developmentThe success rate of growth and development is dependent on many different factors with some of these factors affecting some children more than others. The impact can be negative or positive and can even be both. A great example of this is the wealth in which a child grows up, for example a child who grows up with no financial worries will be clothed, fed and have lots of opportunities for further development through both education and life experiences. On the other end of the scale, a child who has grown up without a stable family, has gone through the foster system, may struggle to develop and/or maintain strong relationships as they have never had a positive experience with attachment.As an Apprentice LSA within Baysgarth School we come across children from all different backgrounds, some wealthy, some poor, some who come from broken family homes and some who have never had solid family unit in their lives, all of which come with both the negative and positive affects in regards to development. Student A comes from a wealthy background, a solid family home, and is getting excellent grades in in mock exams with the expectation of doing the same in GCSE’s. Student B comes from a broken family unit, he has all through his life experienced his dad being abusive towards his mother, mum and dad are divorcing, he struggles to trust adults and totally lacks confidence to the point of suicidal thoughts, he also struggles to make and maintain friends and is not progressing as he should through school. Student C comes from a financially disadvantaged family unit, they have a small group of friends but are experiencing bullying as their clothes are well worn and tatty, their confidence is low, they are progressing reasonably through school but are in the lower sets, this child has lots of time off school due to health reasons is low in weight4441[[ and often experiences insect bites. Student D is in foster care and has been their whole lives, as they have been in multiple homes they adapt quickly with making friends although they struggle to form secure and lasting friendships and struggle mostly with forming secure and trusting relationships with adults, in classes they can sometimes be disruptive as they are craving attention, just not in the most positive manner.2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development