What Factors Affect Solubility?Criterion B Lab Name Chris LeeDate April102019Class 6ATitle How

What Factors Affect Solubility?Criterion B Lab Name: Chris LeeDate: April/10/2019Class: 6ATitle: How does the temperature affect solubility?Research Question: How does the temperature affect the time of sugar dissolving in water? Introduction: Solubility is the ability to be dissolved in a liquid usually water. It is the maximum amount that can be dissolved in a liquid. Soluble Is the ability or being able to be dissolved in some solvent usually water. Examples are sugar, salt and some powder form substance like flour and milk powder. Insoluble is not being able to dissolve in a liquid (usually water). Examples are oil, rice, and rock. When two substance mix together they became a solution. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more chemicals or substance. A solution is created two parts solute and the solvent. A solute is something that will dissolve in a substance or solvent. A solvent is something that dissolves the solute or solid. For example, you are making a coffee. Then the water is the solvent and the coffee powder is the solute.There are two types of mixtures and solution. Heterogeneous mixtures and Homogeneous mixtures. Saturated solution and unsaturated solution. Homogeneous mixtures are mixtures that blended or mixed well that can’t be separated (mostly chemically bonded). It still lasts for a long period of time. We can only use mechanical processes to separate them. Like evaporation and filtration. Heterogeneous mixtures that are quite simple they are not bonded or uninformed. We could separate the parts of the mixture without using mechanical processes.A saturated solution is a solution with a solute that dissolves until it is unable to dissolve any more, leaving the undissolved substances at the bottom. Examples of saturated solutions are Coffee powder added to water, Earth soil( saturated with nitrogen ), Carbonated water( saturated with carbon ), etc. An unsaturated solution is a solution that completely dissolves, leaving no remaining substances. Examples of unsaturated solutions are Iced coffee, tea, etc. Soluble Insoluble Heterogeneous mixtures Homogeneous mixtures Solute and solvent What factors affect solubility and time a substance dissolving TemperatureSolid Particles/solute When the temperature increases the solid particles start moving faster which allows the solute to attracted by the solvent easily. When the temperature increases the intermolecular forces can be easily broken down. This allows solute to be attracted by the solvent and dissolve quickly. When the temperature increases the vibration or kinetic energy increases too which breaks down the intermolecular forces(The force that holds molecules in a substance). And this makes the solute to be dissolved quicker in the solvent.When the temperature increases the molecules spread further apart. This allows fitting more sugar molecules between water particles.Gas Particles/solute For gases, the solubility decreases when the temperature increasesWhen the temperature increases the particles can move faster and can be able to escape from the liquid.Pressure Affects the solubility of gas only!!!!!When more pressure is added the number of collision or fusion between gas particles and the solvent increase, which make the gas molecules to be dissolved easily. StirringStirring makes the solute and solvent contact more. This will make the solute dissolve easily and quickly in the solvent. Surface area Dissolving solute mostly happens in the surface areaWhen the surface area increases the solid will have been broken down to smaller pieces. This makes the solute interact with each other easily. This makes solute dissolve easily and quickly in the solvent.The concentration of solute/solvent To dissolve a substance the intermolecular forces should be broken down. But if there is more solute there are more intermolecular forces that the water should break down. So more solute affect the time a substance dissolving. Molecular forces There are two types of forces that operate in molecules. Intermolecular Forces and Intramolecular Forces. Intermolecular forces are forces that hold molecules in a substance.It is not chemically bonded and it weaker than Intramolecular Forces. Intramolecular Forces are forces that hold atoms in a molecule. It is chemically bonded and it is stronger than intermolecular forces. Changes in the state of matter 6 changes in the state of matter. Condensation: A process in which gas turns into liquid Evaporation: A process in which liquid turns into gasSublimation: A process in which solid turns into gasDeposition: A process in which gas turns into solid Melting: A process in which solid turns into a liquid Freezing: A process in which liquid turns into a solidSummary Solubility The maximum amount that can be dissolved in a liquidSolution A homogenous mixture of two or more substance Homogenous mixtures: Mixtures that blended or mixed well that can’t be separated (mostly chemically bonded). It still lasts for a long period of time Use mechanical processes to separate themHeterogeneous mixtures: Mixtures which are quite simple they are not bonded or uninformed. Able without using mechanical processes.Two types of solution Saturated solution: A solution with a solute that dissolves until it is unable to dissolve any more, leaving the undissolved substances at the bottom. Examples: Earth soil( saturated with nitrogen ), Carbonated water( saturated with carbon ), etc. Unsaturated solution: A solution that completely dissolves, leaving no remaining substances. Examples: Iced coffee, tea and etc. Soluble and insoluble Soluble: The ability or being able to be dissolved in some solvent (usually water)Examples: Sugar, salt and some powder form substance like flour and milk powder.Insoluble: Not being able to dissolve in a liquid (usually water)Examples: oil, rice, and rock 6 changes in the state of matter. Condensation: Gas – liquid Evaporation: Liquid – gasSublimation: Solid – gasDeposition: Gas – solid Melting: Solid – liquid Freezing: Liquid – solidAn exampleYou are trying to make a cup of hot cocoa(homogenous mixture). Then the ingredients are cocoa powder and milk. (Scientific information: The cocoa is the solute and the milk is the solvent. The cocoa powder is a soluble substance because it dissolves in a liquid). Then you add the cocoa powder into the milk. (Scientific information: And since the milk is hot the solute starts moving faster which allows the solute to attracted by the solvent easily. Also, the temperature makes intermolecular forces to be broken easily. This allows solute to be attracted by the solvent and dissolve quickly) (Scientific information: And to make the cocoa powder dissolve faster you can stir the mixture. Stirring makes the solute and solvent contact more. This will make the solute dissolve easily and quickly in the solvent). And now you made a cup of hot cocoa. (Scientific information: The cup of hot cocoa is a saturated mixture because there are no remaining substance at the bottom of the cup). Hypothesis: I think the time sugar cube dissolving will decrease when it is added in a cup of water with the highest temperature. Because When the temperature increases the vibration or kinetic energy increases too which breaks down the intermolecular forces(The force that holds molecules in a substance). And this makes the solute to be dissolved quicker in the solvent. Also in this experiment, I will use a solid solute. And For solid solutes when the temperature increases the particles inside the solute will move faster. And this movement allows the solute to attracted by the solvent easily. And also the temperature will increase the amount of solute dissolving. When the temperature increases the molecules spread further apart. This allows fitting more sugar molecules between water particles. As the temperature increases, the water molecules will move faster and the sugar molecules will vibrate more. This will make the solute dissolve faster in the solute. So according to my introduction, the time sugar cube dissolving will decrease when it is added in a cup of water. Variables Table:Possible options for the independent variableNumber of stirsTemperatureAmount of solvent What is the variable?Independent Variable (1)The temperature of water(*C)I will use a bunsen burner to change the temperature of each water in three beakers. I will use 20*c, 50*c and 75*c water. I chose these three temperatures because there is a clear difference in the temperature. Dependent Variable (1)Time sugar dissolving when placed in each beaker ( Each beaker will contain water with different temperature ) (seconds)I will use a timer/stopwatch to measure the time sugar dissolving in each Beaker. Controlled Variables (at least 3)Amount of sugar/solute Amount of water/solvent Size of beakerType of beakerType of sugar The thermometerWhat happens if these variables are not controlled? Amount of sugar/solute Amount of water/solventSize of beakerType of beakerType of sugar If the variable is not controlled I might get a wrong result. For example when I add more solute in only one beaker or If I add more solvent in only one beaker the time sugar dissolving will increase and get a wrong result. The thermometerIf the variables are not controlled. As well I might get a wrong result. For example, if I use a thermometer that was used a while ago and not cooled. It will measure an inaccurate temperature. And when this happens, The result won’t be accurate too.How will I control these variables?Amount of sugar/solute I will use an electric weighing scale to measure the amount of sugar.Amount of water/solventI will use a beaker or a measuring cylinder to measure the amount of water. Size of beakerType of beakerI will use a 500ml beaker to control these variables. Type of sugar To control this variable I will use five grams white sugar. The thermometerTo control this variable I will use three different thermometers for each beaker. MaterialsThe complete list of all materials and apparatus used. Diagrams can be drawn or labeled photographs used (optional).Beakers ( 3 ) (500ml)An object that will hold water when boiling Sugar cubes ( 15~20 g) The solute of this experiment Water ( 900 ~ 1000ml )The solvent of this experiment Thermometer ( 3 ) An instrument or tool which will measure the temperature of the waterBunsen burner ( 1 ) A machine which will boil waterTripod ( 1 ) A stand to hold the gauze and beakerGauze ( 3 ) I piece of metal that will be used when boiling the water. Support the beakers, flasks or other glassware during heating.Timer/stopwatch ( 1 ) An instrument or tool which will measure the time sugar dissolving Gloves(heat resistance) ( 1 )Safety gear Googles ( 1 )Safety gearSet-up diagram MethodExplain what you did exactly to get your results so that if another student is following your instruction, he or she will get the same results as you.Be sure you include sufficient and relevant data 1. Before conducting this experiment wear a glove and a goggle.2. Then gather all the materials that will be used in this experiment.3. Get a tripod, bunsen burner and gauze and set it up.4. In a 500ml beaker pour 300ml of water.5. Put a thermometer in the beaker.6. Place the beaker on top of the gauze and turn the bunsen burner on.(Safety consideration: Don’t touch the beaker when it is heated. It is really hot and can burn your finger)7. Wait until the water’s temperature reaches 75*C 8. Then turn the bunsen burner off9. Place the beaker on the table (Safety consideration: When putting the beaker down you should use a glove or something that prevents you from getting burnt) (Safety consideration: Still the beaker might be hot so don’t touch the beaker. It is can be really hot and can burn your finger)10. Add 5g of sugar in the beaker and immediately start measuring the time.( Significant consideration: After adding the sugar cube in the beaker immediately start measuring the time )(Safety consideration: Still the beaker might be hot so don’t touch the beaker. It is can be really hot and can burn your finger)11. Stop the timer when the sugar cube finished dissolving. (Safety consideration: Still the beaker might be hot so don’t touch the beaker. It is can be really hot and can burn your finger)12. Do this process three times more and record the data in a notebook13. In a new 500ml beaker pour 300ml of water.(Significant consideration: Do not the beaker which we used in step 4!!!!!!!!)14. Put a thermometer in the beaker.15. Place the new beaker on top of a new gauze and turn the bunsen burner on.(Significant consideration: Do not the gauze which we used in step 3!!!!!!! And not the beaker which we used in step 4)(Safety consideration: Still the beaker might be hot so don’t touch the beaker. It is can be really hot and can burn your finger)16. Wait until the water’s temperature reaches 50*C 17. Then turn the bunsen burner off18. Place the beaker on the table (Safety consideration: When putting the beaker down you should use a glove or something that prevents you from getting burnt) 19. Add 5g of sugar in the beaker and immediately start measuring the time.( Significant consideration: After adding the sugar cube in the beaker immediately start measuring the time )20. Stop the timer when the sugar cube finished dissolving. (Safety consideration: still the beaker might be hot so don’t touch the beaker. It is can be really hot and can burn your finger)21. Do this process three times more and record the data in a notebook22. In a new 500ml beaker pour 300ml of water.(Significant consideration: Do not the beaker which we used in step 4 and 13!!!!!!!!)23. Put a thermometer in the beaker.24. Place the new beaker on top of a new gauze and turn the bunsen burner on.(Significant consideration: Do not the gauze which we used in step 3 and 15!!!!!!! And Do not the beaker which we used in step 4 and 13!!!!!!!!))(Safety consideration: Don’t touch the beaker when it is heated. It is really hot and can burn your finger)25. Wait until the water’s temperature reaches 20*C 26. Then turn the bunsen burner off27. Place the beaker on the table (Safety consideration: When putting the beaker down you should use a glove or something that prevents you from getting burnt) 28. Add 5g of sugar in the beaker and immediately start measuring the time.( Significant consideration: After adding the sugar cube in the beaker immediately start measuring the time )29. Stop the timer when the sugar cube finished dissolving. (Safety consideration: still the beaker might be hot so don’t touch the beaker. It is can be really hot and can burn your finger). 30. Do this process three times more and Record the data in a notebookRisk AssessmentWhat are the hazards?How will you prevent accidents?What should you do in the case of an accident?I will use water that is really hot, so if you accidentally spill it your skin can get burned. When touching the beaker with hot water, I should wear a glove or something that prevents me from getting burnt. I should report this to a supervisor or take the person who got injured to the nurse for treatment.The beaker is made out of glass and it is really fragile. If you drop it might break. And the small, broken and sharp piece of glass can get stuck in your skin. This can bring us serious injury. When we are carrying beakers or glass equipment be really careful. Also, we can use a trolley to carry glass equipment. I should report this to a supervisor or take the person who got injured to the nurse for treatment.In this experiment, I will use water. And if I spill water and I might spill and get injured. When we are carrying beakers with water be really careful. Also, we can use a trolley to carry glass equipment filled with water. I should report this to a supervisor or take the person who got injured to the nurse for treatment.Since we are boiling the water in a beaker. The beaker can be really hot. So if we touch a heated beaker our skin can get burned. Wear a glove(heat resistance) to prevent you from getting burned. I should report this to a supervisor or take the person who got injured to the nurse for treatment.

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