What has the writer done? How have they done it? Why is it important?Thesismasculinity in Romeo and JulietRomeo resorts to violence to prove that he’s as much of a man and other characters.Moments of change for Romeo is when he becomes more violent, usually in response to feeling weakSomewhat introductionFrom the very beginning of the play, it’s shown that the male characters in Romeo and Juliet associate being men with being violent. In the first scene of the play, when Gregory and Sampson talk about their hatred of Montagues, Gregory says, “To move is to stir, and to be valiant is to stand.” This sets up the idea that fighting is brave. Sampson goes on to say that he will “take the wall of any man or maid of Montagues,” but Gregory says that going to the wall is a weak move. Sampson agrees, and changes his wording to be more aggressive. He says he’ll “push Montague’s men from the wall, and thrust his maids to the wall.” Later in the scene, when the Montagues approach the two, Sampson tells them to “draw if you be men.”This conversation also parallels conversations that happen often in real life, where men will assert their masculinity by talking about women in an offensive way.Act 1, Scene 1In that same scene, B feels bad that R is in loveBegin discussing RomeoWhen we first see Romeo, he is heartbroken over Rosaline, and Benvolio is annoyed by that.Later, in Act 2, Romeo is no longer obsessed with Rosaline, but now loves Juliet. Benvolio and Mercutio are annoyed with him, because his time is spent thinking about Juliet, instead of having fun. Mercutio says Romeo is “already dead”, and was “run through the ear with a love-song”. This metaphor is Mercutio’s way of saying that Romeo was defeated by love, because he wasn’t strong enough. When they meet up, Mercutio and Romeo have a lighthearted, joking conversation. Mercutio says, “Why, is not this better now than groaning for love?” He likes the version of Romeo who isn’t in love better than the one that is.Explain that Mercutio is more traditionally masculine. He makes vulgar jokes, and is violentA turning point for Romeo is Mercutio’s fight with Tybalt. When Mercutio dies, Romeo decides to pursue revenge, in response to feeling emasculated by his friend. When Tybalt is about to fight Mercutio, Romeo tries to stop him by explaining that he doesn’t want Tybalt to get hurt, because of his connection to Juliet. Mercutio gets mad at Romeo, and says “O calm, dishonorable, vile submission!” He is accusing Romeo of being to submissive and peaceful, traits that have previously been seen as unmanly, earlier in the play. Mercutio and Tybalt fight, and when Romeo tries to intervene, Mercutio is stabbed, and then blames Romeo. “Why the devil you came between us? I was hurt under your arm,” he says. Mercutio dies, and Romeo blames himself, saying, “My very friend, hath got this mortal hurt in my behalf…O sweet Juliet, thy beauty hath made me effeminate!” Romeo attributes the death of his friend to him being less of a man, which motivates him to act violently, and kill Tybalt in revenge. As Benvolio says in his report of the duel, Romeo has a “newly entertained rage.”Act 3, Scene 3(“newly entertained rage” as Benvolio later describes in his summary of the fight)Friar Lawrence, who Romeo looks to for guidance, gets mad at Romeo for being weak, and pushes Romeo to go into a unsafe situation. In Act 2, Shakespeare hints at the Friar’s opinions on masculinity, when Friar Lawrence says “women may fall when there’s no strength in men.” This line shows that the Friar believes that men are stronger than women, and it’s important for them to be. In Act 3, when Romeo is explaining his sadness that he can’t see Juliet, he asks Romeo, “Art thou a man?”. Friar Lawrence tells him that his “tears are womanish” and that he’s “unseemingly woman in a seeming man”. Even the staging puts Romeo in a weak position, and the Friar in one of power. Romeo is on the ground, while the Friar stands over him and scolds him. Similarly, in the same scene, the Nurse tells Romeo that if he stands up he’ll “be a man.” Here, Romeo is being told that expressing his emotions makes him less of a man. Being under scrutiny pushes Romeo to go along with the Friar’s plan of visiting Juliet, which could put him in danger.Romeo’s fight with Paris? ACT 5Romeo: O, be gone! By heaven, I love thee better than myself; For I come hither arm’d against myself: Stay not, be gone; live, and hereafter say, A madman’s mercy bade thee run away. PARIS: I do defy thy conjurations, And apprehend thee for a felon here.ROMEO: Wilt thou provoke me? then have at thee, boy!