Workrelated musculoskeletal disorders WMSDs are described as discomforts experienced by the worker

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are described as discomforts experienced by the worker on the musculoskeletal and neurovascular systems that are caused and get worse by the effect of work conditions (1, 2). Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that WMSDs is a main occupational health problem among nursing population that constitutes about 33% of the hospital workforce. The prevalence of MSDs always varies between 33.0% and 88.0% among nurses all over the world. The frequency of disorders was found to be 84.0% and 76.2% in studies performed on nurses in Estonia and Taiwan respectively. In Turkey, the frequency of MSDs among nurses was 79.5% (3,4). In studies performed in Egypt among hospital nurses in Mansoura and in Ismailia was 85.9% and 83.7% respectively (2, 3). MSDs is a major cause of absenteeism, work restrictions, or even the need to change jobs, disability-affecting performance at work, general well-being and quality of life. It was estimated that 3.5%of nurses are leaving their profession due to back pain (1, 5). According to Bureau of Labour Statistics nurses are in the 10 major occupations which have the high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disease (6). The associated risk factors include Job risk factors, poor environmental conditions and individual risk factors. Job risk factors as static posture (e.g. prolonged standing with trunk and neck flexion), repetitive movement, standing for long hours, bending positions as in (dress changing, injection postures, …). Exhausting circumstances in their daily work environment, and physical force needed to perform certain tasks as, lifting patients, transferring patients out of bed, from the floor, and handling of patients after surgeries (1). These work tasks put nurses at high risk for acute, chronic and cumulative WMSDs (1). One of the most common musculoskeletal complain among nurses is low back pain followed pain in (neck, shoulder/arm, wrist/hand, knees and ankles/feet) (7). Further, personal risk factors as, reduced cardiovascular fitness, ageing, poor back muscle endurance, physical inactivity, obesity; psychosocial stressors also play an important role and may aggravate the condition (5). To prevent (WMSD) In hospital settings it is necessary to conduct detailed job risk assessment first, to detect all risk factors, then design and implement a suitable intervention program that address all issues that may cause (WMSD) (8). Education programs on prevention and coping strategies for WMSDs are recommended for the nurses in order to promote efficiency in patient care as, nurses are the main hospital workers in frequent close contact with patients, instruments and environment in hospital. Also, ergonomics awareness and application of ergonomics principals in work can achieve a balance between task demands and worker characteristics (9, 10). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has published documents and guide lines to prevent and reduce MSDs problems that must be followed (4).

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