ww1

World War OneDeath in SarajevoOn June 28, 1914, Franz Ferdinand, the heir of the Austrian Empire was visiting Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia.Bosnia was in the south-east corner of the Austrian empire and some people there wanted to be independent of Austria and set up their state which could run itself.Franz Ferdinand was warned that his visit could influence trouble, but he ignored this advice and visited Sarajevo anyway. At the start of his tour of Sarajevo, there was another car nearby that was hit by a grenade and an Austrian officer had been injured. Sarajevo was clearly dangerous to be in.Determined to prove that he had control of the city, he didn’t stop there and continued forth.Franz told the driver to take a different route to the hospital (so that he could visit the injured officer). Unfortunately, his driver didn’t understand his instructions and got lost.The driver had reversed to the main street and he stopped in front of a man named Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand Gang wanted to get Bosnia out of Austrian rule. He had also been behind the bomb. Princip pulled out the revolver he had on him and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife then and there.In they end, they both didn’t survive. Life in the TrenchesWorld War 1 trenches were dirty, and disgusting. The life in the trenches meant to be living in fear. Afraid of cholera and trench foot, as well as the constant fear of an attack from the opposing enemy.The British and the French recruited laborers from China to help the troops with temporary labor. Their most fundamental task was digging the trenches in WW1. 140,000 Chinese laborers served on the Western Front throughout the First World War (40,000 were with the French and 100,000 were with the British forces). They were known as the Chinese Labor Corps.The Chinese Labor Corps was barely recognized at the end of the war and since then have almost been forgotten. There is no remembrance to the Chinese among Britain’s 40,000 war memorials, there are no descendants in Britain because they were declined the right to settle after the war, they were plainly painted out of a canvas in which included all the nations who joined the war effort, and many of the records of their service were destroyed in the onslaught of the second world war.Rats and lice frequented the troops by day and night. Oversized rats, full of the food and waste of stationary armies, helped spread disease and were a constant frustration in the life in the trenches. In 1918, doctors saw lice as the reason for trench fever, which haunted the troops with headaches, fevers, and muscle pain. The dirty conditions of trench life, especially the cold days, persistent dampness, resulted in trench foot, an infection that was like frostbite that in extreme cases, led to gangrene and amputation.Random bomb shelling and sniping characterized trench warfare, traumatizing the earth with deadly rifle shots periodically breaking the boredom of trench life. The enemy remained hidden from eyes view and the soldiers often felt helpless against chance and sudden death. The lack of defense for a person against shelling or snipers and the constant hardships of trench life contributed to extreme exhaustion, stress, and anxiety. Women in The WarMany married women were forced into the workplace because of the death of their husbands. Others were drafted into manufacturers that had been depleted by military conscription.For the war:Many women (at least 200 000) took up jobs in governmental departments.500,000 came up in clerical positions in private offices.250,000 worked in agricultural positions.700,000 women worked at posts in the munitions industry, which was dangerous work. They also did a lot of heavy work, including shipbuilding and furnace stoking. These types of jobs had excluded women preceding the war.Medicine in WW1Medicine back then was not as advanced as what we would have now. Many solutions for aide was mainly amputation.Many soldiers suffered from pain because of the lack of use of ambulances, antiseptic, and anesthesia which did not exist back then.At the beginning stages of the war, many soldiers were already badly hurt, and many needless amputations were made.By the time of January 1915, Doctor George Crile and Nurse Agatha Hodgins introduced many doctors to anesthesia.Once antiseptics and anesthesia were introduced to hospitals, it did save lives but with the limited use for an ambulance and quick transportation, many soldiers still stood a little chance of living.“A war benefits medicine more than it benefits anybody else. It’s terrible, of course, but it does.” –Merritt CrawfordSpies and CodesThe MI5 was a German spy agency and by 1918, had 150 known members. At the time, they were far more advanced the British spies. During WW1, MI5’s staff increased to reach a total of 844. Though the leadership of the organization, which was mostly male several female recruits achieved positions of greater merit than in any other British agency or department. W. Masterson became the first woman to manage the finances of a government office. Jane Sissmore, who joined MI5 as a sixteen-year-old secretary who came straight out of school in 1916, she progressed so rapidly that by 1924 she had determined as a barrister and become MI5’s chief expert on Soviet affairs. Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, also known as, Mata Hari was born in Leeuwarden, Netherlands. Her father was a hat merchant as well as a spectator in finance who eventually went bankrupt. At 15, her mother died and her penniless father, took her twin sister with him to start a new life. She, accompanied by her younger brother, eventually found her way to her uncle who put her in an all girl’s boarding school where it was expected for her to become a governess. At 17, she was accused of having an affair with the school director and was expelled. Then from there, she had decided that sexuality was her ticket to life. Around the mid-1800s she answered a newspaper advertisement that regarded a military captain seeking a beautiful bride. By the 1900s, the couple’s marriage had a run-down and her husband had fled with their daughter and Margaretha moved to Paris.By this time of life, Margaretha took in the title as ‘Mata Hari,’ which, in Indonesian dialect translated to ‘eye of the day.’ She began to grow in fame as a temple dancer. Unfortunately, over the years, Mata Hari’s fame started receding and younger dancers began to take over her picture and outshined her. By her early forties, she fell in love with a 21-year-old Russian captain. In hopes to support him, she boldly accepted a lucrative assignment as a spy for France.Mata Hari insisted that she had planned to use her strings to seduce her way into the German high command, get secrets and hand them over to the French—but she never got that far. Later, she met a German attaché, to whom she tossed some false information and gossip in hopes for him to say other things in return.Instead, she got named as a German spy in communications he sent to Berlin—which were intercepted by the French. Some believe that the Germans suspected Mata Hari was a French spy and inwardly set her up, deliberately sending a message falsely labeling her as a German spy—which they knew would be easily decoded by the French. Others, of course, believe that she was a double agent working for the Germans. All in all, the French authorities arrested Mata Hari for espionage. The Zimmerman telegram was a coded message sent by the Germans to Mexico, inviting them to join the Triple Alliance if the U.S.A sided with the Triple Entente. The telegram’s purpose was to send the said message from Arthur Zimmerman, the person who created the message, to the German Ambassador to Mexico. There, the ambassador was also asked to include Mexico’s alliance with Japan, a member of the allies.The alliance with Mexico and Japan, which was the message in the Telegram, was created to make a new Pacific and Central American Front, distracting the US and aiding the German war effort. The line was not secret, because the British were able to intercept the message. Weapons and New Technology• The most famous and firstly introduced weapon was the machine gun. Which was invented by an American, Hiram Maxim. • German’s stole the idea because they saw military potential in the said weapon. The Germans made the American designed machine gun lighter for air-cooled airplanes and land mobility.• The machine gun was underestimated and proven deadly when German machine guns killed and injured 60,000 English soldiers in one day in Somme.• Poison gas was a weapon that was deadly if the weapon was used at the right time. Poison gas could easily be brought back to the soldiers who used it by wind currents changing. • This weapon is inhaled and over time burns and liquidizes your lungs. The only said solution to counter the effects of poison gas is to urinate on a cloth and put it to your nose and mouth.• Urine counters the effects of poison gas because urine contains ammonia. • The flamethrower was first introduced by the Germans. This weapon shot out huge amounts of flames in a short time—hence the name, The Flamethrower.• This weapon especially terrified the Triple Entente because they would have never expected such a weapon from their enemy opponents.• The flamethrower was invented to burn soldiers, bunkers, and any wooden obstacles.• If you can’t see your enemy, then fighting was useless. That is why the British invented the Tracer Bullets.• They were bullets that radiated small amounts of flammable material that left a phosphorescent trail. Its popularity was because of a part to an unexpected side-benefit: the flame could ignite hydrogen, which made it perfect for taking down the German zeppelins.• Earlier during the war, aircraft were simple machines, more alike to birds than anything else. The first missions were carried out as observation.• They were used to spot artillery, troop concentrations, and supply lines. Pilots were even accustomed to waving or saluting each other. Eventually, it was later realized that the aircraft was a greater problem than originally seen.• Pilots began throwing rocks at each other and taking shots with pistols, or rifles from observers. Ultimately, machine guns were outfitted on the upper wings of aircraft. • U-Boat is the simpler version for “undersea boat””. The acronym in German is U-boot for Unterseeboot.• Germany built several different classes and types of U-Boats during World War 1 varying in length

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