The candidate is required to complete answers to the following:1. Complete the following table identifying which statements represent the social model of disability and which represent the medical of disability. Give reasons in the final column.Statement Social/medical? Why?‘If he’s in a wheelchair, I’m sorry we will not be able to take him to the farm visit, we are going in staff cars and we just can’t do it!’ Social They are not taking him to the farm visit due to his disability.‘All staff have learned Makaton (sign and symbol language) so we will be able to find the best way of communicating with Jane, don’t worry!’ Social Staff have tried with Jane; therefore, it is best to provide further options of communication. Janes method should be the preferred method in this statement it seems that they are trying to establish the best way to communicate. If Makaton does not work other options are available which are as follows: pictorial aids, visual aids & computer-based aids etc. I’m sorry but our staff don’t have the training to administer the medication so we will be unable give your child a place at the nursery.’ Medical Staff should be trained to administer the medication. and cater for the child so that he/she is provided a place at nursery and that the child is in need of medication for a condition that is theirs alone to deal with. There would be an aim towards ‘curing‘ the condition regardless of what it is so that the child can attend settings in the same way as unaffected children. 2. Explain briefly what is understood by the following terms:a) Participation- The act of taking part in something. The act of sharing in the activities of a group. The process during which individuals, groups and organizations are consulted about or have the opportunity to become actively involved in a project or program of activity.b) Tokenism – The practice of making only a perfunctory or symbolic effort to do a particular thing, especially by recruiting a small number of people from under-represented groups in order to give the appearance of sexual or racial equality within a workforce.c) Stereotyping – When you judge a group of people who are different from you based on your own and/or other opinions and/or encounters. For example, when you meet an elderly lady, you might assume that she has certain traits – that she likes to read books or is a grandmother. These assumptions are stereotypes. Another example is Asians are good at Maths – Asians are stereotyped as good at Maths and Africans are stereotyped as good in athletics. d) Prejudice – is an unreasonable dislike of a particular group of people or things, or a preference for one group of people or things, or a preference for one group of people or things over another.e) Direct discrimination – is when you’re treated less differently and worse than someone else on the grounds of gender, disability, race, sexual orientation, religious belief or age. f) Indirect discrimination – is when you’re treated in the same way as other people at work, but it has a worse effect on you because of who you are for example, because of your religion or because you’re a woman or another characteristic which is protected under the Equality Act 2010. 3) Give one example of a kind of discriminatory practice which might be met in the workplace and explain briefly what could be done to challenge it.I am supervising children at lunchtime and notice a group of children sitting together on the table eating their lunch. A girl approaches them who has just arrived in the UK from Syria. She asks if she can join them for lunch but is told “no you can’t “and she should go home.I would challenge this case of discrimination and take this matter seriously and make sure I deal with this as soon as possible. It is important that when I am dealing with cases of discrimination, I recognise that it can be intentional but can also be because of ignorance and lack of understanding. Firstly, I would consider the age of the child as very young children may say something which they don’t understand the meaning of what they have said in which case I will need to explain to the child that their comments are not acceptable and that everyone should be treated fairly and equally. Regarding, older children I may need to take further action as they should know how to behave and treat people. The next step would be to record and report the incident to a member of the Senior Leadership team in my setting. Firstly, I would keep a record of the discrimination in the incident book. A brief account would be shared with all relevant staff, including teaching assistants and midday assistants, so that a child who has been discriminated knows they can approach any member of staff. This also prompts staff to be extra vigilant and check that the discrimination has not resumed. Incidents logged will be filed in the Safeguarding file. The child who is being discriminated will receive support from the staff who, after consultation with the Head Teacher, informs the parents or carers of all the children involved. Follow-up action may involve counselling and support for the victim and sanctions for the offender. Time is spent talking to the child who has been responsible for the discrimination, explaining to them why their action was wrong and how they should change their behaviour in future.The child who is being discriminated is encouraged to report to the teachers. Children are invited to tell the staff their views about a range of school issues, including their perceptions of behaviour and discrimination, in the annual pupil questionnaire. Therefore, it is important that they are heard, and they know how to report discrimination and receive help and they are confident in the school’s ability to deal with the discrimination, steps are taken to help them feel safe again. They are also helped to rebuild confidence and resilience and know how they can get support from others., For children who engage in discriminating behaviour, sanctions and learning programmes hold to account for their behaviour and help them face up to the harm they have caused, they learn to behave in ways which do not cause harm in the future, because they have developed their emotional skills and knowledge. Lastly, they learn how they can take steps to repair the harm they have caused. At Linthorpe Community Primary School (LCPS) staff use a range of methods to help prevent discrimination and to establish a climate of trust and respect for all. Principles of social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL) and a strong school ethos support this. Sessions in spiritual, moral, social & cultural development (SMSC) within the formal curriculum help children understand the feelings of discriminating children and to practise the restraint required to avoid lapsing into discriminating behaviour.4) Complete the following with examples of direct and indirect discrimination, both individual and institutional. Give two examples in each sentence.INDIVIDUALDirect discriminationA child with Autism can sometimes act in a disruptive manner in class. The school does not take disciplinary action but uses agreed strategies to manage his behaviour. A non-disabled child who is also disruptive in class is punished for his behaviour. Direct discriminationA family has recently immigrated to the UK. The child is attending a local school and has been bullied because of his/her race/colour. He/she is called racist names pushed around in the school hallway and told to “go home “. The parents complained to the teacher and the headteacher, but the school has not acted against the racial harassment, and the bullying continues. The child does not wish to attend school and his/her school grades have fallen greatly.A female pupil is actively discouraged from taking an engineering course by a teacher who tells her this is an unsuitable subject for girls, this would be direct discrimination on the grounds of gender.Indirect discriminationA teaching assistant works at a Primary school. Her sister is a lesbian, they are very close, and she often talks about her during lunch and break times. The teaching assistant recently found out that she was turned down for a promotion because of the impact/concerns it could have on the children at school regarding her sister.Indirect discriminationThe school adopts a policy that all teachers must work full-time. As it is woman who usually have responsibility for childcare, woman who are significantly more disadvantaged by this policy than men. If a female teacher cannot work full-time because of childcare that may amount to indirect discrimination.INSTITUTIONALDirect discriminationA parent rings school asking about admission for a child with dyspraxia. The school secretary says, “We don’t take disabled children”.Direct discriminationA deaf child is not allowed to take part in an after-school workshop run by a visiting recorder player as “Deaf children won’t benefit from music”. Indirect discriminationA school has a policy of healthy snacks only a diabetic child is given a detention for eating a biscuit.Indirect discriminationA school will only allow children to go on a trip to Alton towers if they have more than 95% attendance. A child with a long-term medical condition has been absent from school for a reasonable time due to health reasons and therefore, is told he/she cannot attend.5) Complete the following listing three types of barriers to participation for each area.Attitudinal barriers Attitudinal barriers is a term used for the set of difficulties or challenges experienced by a person with disabilities that result from misunderstanding, confusing or ignoring the disability, using the disability to dismiss the person or to make unfair comparisons about the persons work performance.Barriers to participation• Lack of knowledge and sensitivity to disability issues on the part of some educators, staff and children as it can make it difficult for children with disabilities to access educational services equally.• Physical and emotional bullying to learning can lead to isolation and closure of possible inclusion.• People sometimes stereotype those with disabilities, assuming their quality of life is poor or that they are unhealthy because of their impairment.• Assuming a person with a disability is inferior.• Respect the privacy of children with disabilities.• A child with Asperger’s syndrome does not have a structured behaviour management plan. Organisational barriersOrganisational barriers can be any number of things ranging from physical items to individual and groups attitudes.Barriers to participation• Existence of individual routines for disabled children that resulted in shortened or no playtime.• The treatment of all disabled children in a school as one group rather than as individuals.• Lack of staff training and concern about taking risks which limited play opportunities.Physical barriersPhysical barriers is the environmental and natural condition that acts as a barrier in communication in sending message from sender to receiver. Organizational environment or interior work space design problems, technological problems, and noise are the parts of physical barriers.Barriers to participation• Children with disabilities continue to encounter physical barriers to educational services such as lack of ramps/or elevators in multi-level school buildings.• Heavy doors• Inaccessible washrooms or inaccessible transportation to and from school.