Introduction3 million workers die annually from work related incidents 60000 weekly 12000

Introduction3 million, workers die annually from work related incidents, (60,000 weekly, 12,000 daily), 500 million people (2 million daily) are seriously injured or ill, the financial burden on society is estimated to be 3 trillion dollars ($60 million, $12 million daily) (The International Labour Organisation (ILO) 2019). These figures are most likely underestimated as most of the costs of work related injuries and illness are hidden from statistical view. In the Irish farming sector, the likelihood of being killed at work is 14 times greater than the mainstream working sector in Ireland (see Figure 1).The farming sector plays a critical role in the Irish economy and accounts for 10% of employment in Ireland (Teagasc, 2017). However, farming is recognised as a high risk occupation in Ireland and internationally (McNamara & Reidy, 1997). In Ireland farming culture and tradition dates back for millennia. As culture and mindfulness have a significant impact on farm workers’ behaviour, the influence these factors have on the health and safety of Irish farmers will be discussed.This report will critically examine the current literature surrounding the role that culture, safety culture and mindfulness plays in health and safety in the Irish farming workplace. Causes of higher fatality rates in Irish farming and potential solutions will be discussed and finally, a proposal for a new research methodology will be presented.Background InformationIreland is a rural country with farming traditionally a major feature of Irish life, culture and economy. There are 137,500 family farms in Ireland the average size is 32.4 hectares (National Farm Survey (NFS) 2016). Irish agriculture uses mostly grass and in 2018, 104,600 people of average age 56 were employed in the Irish farming sector. They are mainly part-time self-employed farm owner-occupiers who live on the family farm; half have off-farm employment (HSA, 2019). In 2016, the agri-food sector in Ireland generated 7% of gross value added (€13.9 billion), 9.8% of Ireland’s merchandise exports and provided 8.5% of national employment. Therefore, the Agri-Food Sector makes a significant contribution to the national economy. Farming in Ireland is dependent on exports, with almost 700 firms’ employing 167,500 people, exporting agri-produce to more than 160 countries. These exports produce a far bigger return than equivalent activity in other sectors as agri-food companies’ source 74% of raw materials and services from Irish suppliers compared to 43% for all manufacturing companies. In 2016, the net exports of beef accounted to 85% of production, making Ireland the largest beef net exporter in the EU and fifth largest worldwide (Teagasc 2017). In 2017, 861 farms participated in the Teagasc NFS and farm incomes at €31,412 were up 32% from €24,000 in 2016. As there are some very large farms with very large incomes, the majority of farmers would have incomes that are much lower than these figures. The Teagasc NFS only includes farms with a standard output of more than €8,000; this automatically excludes the smallest farms. In 2015 a special survey of small farms with a standard output of less than €8,000, called, ‘Teagasc National Farm Survey: The Sustainability of Small Farming in Ireland’ was conducted. The survey found that 37% of all Irish farms were in this ‘small farm’ category and the 2015 average family farm income of a small farm was €2,917, with 88% of small farms getting an off-farm income and 50% classed as extremely economically vulnerable.Definition of Culture Literature gives numerous definitions of culture all with similar beliefs. John McNamara gives a clear and concise definition“Culture consists of the typical features of a certain group of people which can be featured elements such as language or social norms, furthermore, the social dimension of culture is an important element as it considers how people relate and identify with each other” (McNamara, 1995). Tylor goes further stating that:“culture is a quality possessed by people in all social groups and that it can be defined as a complicated phenomenon which consists of knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and other abilities and rituals acquired by people in society” (Spencer-Oatey 2012). Spencer-Oatey’s definition is:“Culture is a fuzzy set of attitudes, beliefs, behavioural conventions, and basic assumptions and values that are shared by a group of people, and that influence each member’s behaviour and each member’s interpretations of the “meaning”” of other people’s behaviour”

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