1.1 Explain ways in which transitions and significant life events affect individuals’ well-being
There are many different types of transitions for an individual. Some are common, happening to most, and others are less common. All changes can affect a person in some way. If a person is able to be given the opportunity to ask questions and discuss changes and events, then this could help lessen any anxieties and negative effects on their development. There are four time of transitions which an individual could experience such as emotional, physical, intellectual and physiological. It is important as a professional that we are mindful of how the service user is feeling when they enter the company. The service user may be leaving a secure hospital and transitioning back into the community after several years due to poor mental health which resulted in a significant life event. Due to this issue, this could lead to the individual having triggers in their life which for example, going to certain places, which could affect them long term. Furthermore, it is important to be mindful of how transitioning for a service user could impact on them emotionally.
For example, a service user may be moving into on of the company’s homes due to a bereavement from their full-time carer (parents or family member). Also, it is also important to note that a transition between services can be fundamental for an individual. For example, a young person whe receives support from CAMHS, who will require ongoing support from Adult service when they turn 18 can have a detrimental affect on their wellbeing. This is because the way in which CAMHS and Adult Mental Health Services are systematized does not always fit easily with the ways in which mental health problems are experienced by young people. For example, a young person may find him or herself without a service due to: differences in referral criteria and entry thresholds in CAMHS and AMHS. Transitional care is becoming an important focus for both policy and practice with calls for generic, cross-specialty developments, since many problems which arise at the interface are not specialty- or disorder-specific but embody common challenges for child and adult services across specialities (McDonagh and Viner, 2006).
In regard to life events such as traumatic experiences that an individual has been subject to, can also have an impact on their well-being. For example, if an individual has experienced a death of a close family member or has been in an accident where it has left them requiring additional support, this could lead to the individual being affect physically and psychologically. A person who may experience an event such as this may be develop mental health issues which could impact on their future wellbeing. For example, people experiencing PTSD can feel anxious for years after the trauma, whether they were physically injured or not. In addition, someone who has developed depression is different from feeling down or sad. Someone experiencing depression will experience intense emotions of anxiety, hopelessness, negativity and helplessness, and the feelings stay with them instead of going away.
1.2 Analyse how theories on change inform approaches to the management of transitions. Individuals are often quite uncomfortable with change, for all sorts of understandable reasons. This can lead to resist it an oppose it. Therefore, it is important to understand how people are feeling as change proceeds, so they can be guided throughout.The Transition Model was created by William Bridges, and was publishes in his book Managing Transitions in 1991. The main strength of the model is that it focuses on t focuses on transition, not change. Transition, on the other hand, is internal. This is what happens in people’s minds as they go through change. Change can happen very quickly, while transition usually occurs more slowly. The difference between these is subtle but important. Change is something that happens to people, even if they don’t agree with it. The Transition Model highlights stages of transition that people go through when they experience change such as, ending, losing and letting go; the neutral zone, and the new beginning. William Bridge says that people will go through each stage at their own pace, for example those who are comfortable with change such as a transition in care homes, will likely move ahead to stage three quickly, while other may linger at stages one or two.Another model is the Lewin’s Change Management Model which is a framework to assist with managing change. The Change Management Model has three distinct stages of change, and when you are able to recognize the stages, it allows you to plan and implement the change required. According to (Lewin, 1951) views, for any behaviour there is dynamic balance of forces running in opposite directions. For example, to understand the problem within the company it is essential to analyses these first and then plan the strategies and goals for moving equilibrium in desired direction (Kritsonis, 2005).Finally, Fisher’s Process of Transition model explains how people respond to change. Fisher identified eight stages that people follow in succession through a change process. Some people move more quickly through the stages than others. Deciding factors are their temperament, life experiences, degree of control and so on. People may also regress to an earlier stage depending on their situation.
1.3 Explain the concept of resilience in relation to transitions and significant life events Resilience, which is directly related to wellbeing, is about having the ability to cope with and adapt to new situations. Having a sense of resilience and positive wellbeing enables a person to approach other people and situations with confidence and optimism, which is especially important for young people given the enormous changes that occur with the transition into adolescence and adulthood.Resilience in Adults is the ability to stand up to adversity and to ‘bounce back’ or return to a state of equilibrium following individual adverse episodes. For continuing adversity, it may be a matter of having the ability, or learning how, to cope with or manage that adversity in the longer term. Health related mental resilience is different from physical resilience or financial resilience. The psychological concept of resilience has its roots in child and developmental psychology and may sometimes be seen as a process rather than a personal characteristic or trait of character. By viewing resilience as a ‘dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significant adversity’, the focus of study then moves away from identifying some of the key factors associated with resilience, to understanding the mechanisms by which they might operate.
1.4 Analyse the factors that affect individuals’ ability to manage transitions and changes Transitions affect us all, up to 10-20 times in our lifetime after major life-events. Transitions enable us to make fundamental changes to how we see the world and respond creatively to our new reality, good or bad. They happen spontaneously. But because they take 6-12 months or more to work through most people are unaware of the process. Factors such as life experiences, medical issues and poor mental health issues are all factors that can affect an individual to manage any change or transition within their life; particularly if they do not have the correct support. For example, if an individual who suffers with poor mental health is not in receipt of the correct support from a Community Psychiatric Nurse regarding their medication, which in effect could affect their thoughts and feelings. Thus, could have an impact on their ability to manage a transition or change within their life i.e. moving accommodation, attending a different day service or a change in their care plan.
2.1 Explain how solution focused practice is used to support the management of transitions. Solution focused is a theoretical approach that enables services users to see a way through the problems that they have in their lives and build skills to understand those that they may encounter in the future. It helps to show that whilst conflicts and barriers do, and will always in some form exist, they do not, and need not be all consuming, nor prevent the individual from achieving their hopes and ambitions. Solution-focused practice concentrates on helping people move towards the future that they want and to learn what can be done differently by using their existing skills, strategies and ideas, rather than focusing on the problem. Therefore, in M&D Care we adoption the solution focused approach within our practise when supporting service users transitioning from a hospital or a different company to ensure they are given the right provision and strategies to managing the change in their life. In M&D Care we work a lot with service users on a face to face basis. Whilst doing this, I try to focus on identifying with the service user, their strengths which is a really important part of solution-focused approach and allows the service user to be aware of their strengths rather than focussing on their weaknesses or issues. A good think about solution focused practise is that is can be flexible in the way a worker delivers it, particularly in the wording of questions, which is very helpful for the service users we work with, who may have additional learning needs and may not understand certain questions.