Plants dominate the natural world and are the source of energy for

Plants dominate the natural world and are the source of energy for the majority of other terrestrial organisms. There are about 300,000 plant species on Earth. Plants are the only life forms that can produce their own food using energy from sunlight. Plants produce almost all of the oxygen in the air that humans and other animals breathe.Plants are also an important source of food, building materials, and other resources that make life possible for Earth’s animals and humans.The basic plant structure includes two organ systems: the shoot system and the root system. The shoot system consists of the parts of the plant that are above ground such as leaves, buds, and stems. In flowering plants, flowers and fruits are also part of the shoot system. The root system is made up of those parts of the plant below ground, such as the roots, tubers, or rhizomes. The cell membrane of plants are made up of organic compounds like carbohydrates, lipids and proteins therefore the plant would die if radiation destroys cell membrane. (Simply.science, 2018)Most plants grow from seeds, bulbs, or spores. Since plants cannot move, they use animals, birds, and the wind to scatter, or disperse, their seeds. Seeds come in all sizes. Some flower seeds are as small as grains of salt. Others, such as coconuts, are quite large. After it germinates, the first thing a growing seed does is develops a root. The root anchors the plant and absorbs nutrients and water from the soil. Next, a sprout with the first leaf grows. The leaves grow towards the sunlight. Plant growth is often measured as a change in area, length, volume, height, wet or dry weight.The plant growth is influenced by a variety of external and internal factors. Internal factors include genetic and hormonal factors while external factors include light, temperature, water, nutrients and radiation. (VanDerZanden, 2008)Radiation is energy that comes from a source and travels through space and may be able to penetrate various materials. Light, cellphones and wifi are types of radiation that are called nonionizing. Non-ionizing radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum to ionize atoms or molecules—that is, to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule. Instead of producing charged ions when passing through matter, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation has sufficient energy only for excitation, the movement of an electron to a higher energy state.(En.wikipedia.org, 2019)Radiation is possible to have a negative health impact on humans and therefore, people need to be concerned of the possible dangers. All health issues will be affected to some degree by exposure to radiation, whether electric, magnetic, wireless or ionizing radiation, since it weakens the immune system, stresses the body and damages healthy cells. Some of these health impacts include cancer, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, electro sensitivity, miscarriages, birth defects, stress nausea, lupus and a weakened immune system. Since the radiation can have such negative effects, it is essential for people to be aware of the possible impact of exposure to the radiation (Defendershield.com, 2012).Cellphone technology is the most common telecommunication in the world. Due to its advantages, cellphone technology has grown exponentially in the last some years. Now-a-days many towers are building in the field and many other places near the agricultural fields which affect the plants in all different aspects. The radiations effect may be positive or negative on the growth and development of plants (Sharma and Parihar, 2014). Scope: This research will serve to further clarify the impact of radiation on plants. The research will involve exposing same species of plants to the same form of radiation for different periods of time. The research will further find evidence that radiation may destroy the organic compounds that make up the cell membrane of plantsAim: To determine the effect of cellphone electromagnetic wavelengths on radish plant growth.Hypothesis: When radish plants are exposed to cellphone electromagnetic wavelengths, the wavelengths will negatively influence the plant growth including the plants height, weight and root development.2. Literature ReviewA study was performed on various insects to observe the effect of the radiation on the insects. In an experiment, a hive of bees was exposed to 900 MHz for 10 minutes. The results found that the worker bees abandoned the hive leaving only the queen bee and eggs remaining. In addition, the worker bees stopped retuning to the hive and the egg production of the queen decreased from 350 to only 100 eggs per day. Additional studies done in Europe showed that the bees were disorientated in their navigation, honey production was decreased, and the bees had trouble returning to their hives. The study concluded that the radiation had extremely negative effects on the insects and they too advised further investigation to be done on the topic. Although this experiment was mainly focused on bees, it also included reviews on multiple studies in order to give an overview of the effect of cellphone radiation on multiple organisms. Figure 2 shows that the other studies include plants which had an 88% impact from the radiation which is relevant to the experiment being conducted. This source is reliable as many studies and experiments in order to select the most reliable results and conclusions (Sivani and Sudarsanam, 2013).In an experiment conducted, seeds of garden cress plants were placed into two bowls. The first bowl was placed in a room with insignificant cellphone radiation. The second bowl was placed in a separate room in close proximity to the cellphone radiation. The experiment concluded that the electromagnetic fields of the cellphones were absorbed into the plants. The effect of cellphone radiation on plants is influenced by many factors. The electromagnetic field’s thermal effects are dependent on the wave frequency. This means that the thermal effect is increased as the frequency increases on living organisms. The entire amount of thermal energy received is dependent on the content of water found in the vegetable fibers. Also, the electrical properties are determined by the water content. Lastly, the surface area of the vegetable fibers that experience exposure to the radiation determines the effect of the radiation. If the plant cannot absorb the entire amount of thermal energy, it may cause thermal overload to the plant organs and the entire organism. The effect of radiation at a high frequency can cause an increase in the temperature of the plant which can result in the metabolic and physiological change in their growth pattern. Although this experiment was not conducted on radishes, the experiment is useful as it shows the negative impact that radiation has on plant growth and development. The effects included a decrease in the plant growth, metabolic and physiological changes and genetic mutations which often resulted in plant death. However, this research is limited as the experiment needs to be repeated in order to be more accurate about the effect of radiation on plants. (Liptai et al, 2017)In a study conducted to determine the effects of cell phone EMFs on germination and growth of mung bean as well as the changes in biomolecules and some vital enzyme activities were investigated in response to cell phone radiations so as to better understand the mechanism of action of mobile phones on early growth of plants. Exposure of mung bean to cell phone EMFs affected their germination and growth depending upon the time of exposure. There was no change in seed germination when mung bean seeds were treated for less than 2 hours. However, exposure to an EMF for 4 hours reduced the germination by 50%. The seedling growth in terms of radicle and plumule length and seedling dry weight of mung bean were adversely affected. Exposure to cell phone EMF for more than 1 hour significantly reduced the radicle and plumule length by around 11−59% and 11 – 47%, respectively. The radicle length was declined by nearly 59% over control when mung bean seeds were exposed to cell phone radiations for 4 hours. On the other hand, 47% inhibition was observed in plumule length at exposure for 4 hours. Likewise, the seedling dry weight of the mung bean was appreciably reduced by about 6 – 43% in response to cell phone radiations exposure. Despite the fact that this experiment was focused on mung beans, the experiment gives of the different effects of cellphone radiation on the germination, seedling growth and dry weight of a plant which contributes to the experiment being carried out (Sharma et al., 2009).In an experiment conducted to investigate the effects of mobile phone radiations on early growth of field mustard and evaluate the associated biochemical changes, it studied the effect of actual cell phone EMFr (for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 hours) in terms of early root growth, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of organic compounds such as malondialdehyde which is a marker for oxidative stress and hydrogen peroxide content, effect on membrane integrity and root oxidizability and changes in levels of enzymes such as superoxide dismutases, catalases, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidases. It was observed that cell phone EMFr inhibited the germination, early growth of field mustard. Further, EMFr enhanced lipid peroxidation and increased H2O2 accumulation and electrolyte leakage from the field mustard roots thereby indicating ROS-mediated oxidative stress. It was accompanied by a significant increase in the activities of scavenging enzymes. However, the enhanced activities of scavenging enzymes could not prevent the damage induced by cell phone EMFr. Despite the fact that this experiment was focused on field mustard, the experiment shows the effects of cellphone radiation in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content, effect on membrane integrity and root oxidizability and changes in levels of enzymes which contributes to the research being carried out. (Singh and Sharma, 2010).3. MethodologyA packet of Sparkler Radish or Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus seeds was bought at Linksfield nursery. The choice of using the radish plants in this experiment was made for a few reasons. The plant is simple and easy to grow, does not require too much water and sunlight and it can be grown indoors which is essential for this experiment as five out of six radish plants need to be exposed to cellphone radiation. The results will be observed over 40 days and therefore it is useful that the plant grows at a reasonably fast rate. The seeds are readily available and grow in the Summer and Spring which makes the experiment easy to perform as they grow for at least half the year (Chase, 2016). The last reason for the choice of plant is that the most significant part of the plant is its root development and therefore it was clear to see the differences when comparing the root size, thickness and length.

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