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Many childcare places can deliver early years education, including day nurseries, childminders, pre-schools and nursery schools. In England, all 3 to 4-year olds can get 570 free hours per year (usually taken as 15 hours a week for 38 weeks of the year). However, some 3 to 4-years olds are entitled to 30 hours a week of childcare, depending on circumstance. Furthermore, some families on low incomes are entitled to free early years education from the age of 2. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is a framework of care, development and learning for children from birth to the age of 5. The child can learn through a range of activities and the four themes of the EYFS underpin all the guidance: a unique child + positive relationships + enabling environments = learning and development. Learning is designed around the ‘characteristics of learning’ and the children learn by exploring and playing, being active, through critical and creative thinking, that takes place both outside and indoors. The Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) from The British Association for Early Childhood Education, explains that every child is unique, who is continually learning and can be robust, confident and capable. The practitioners observe each child’s development and learning and can understand, assess and plan for the child’s next steps. They can identify the need for any additional support, keep children safe and respect the children and families equally. The positive relationships will help the child to be independent and strong. These relationships will support the child’s efforts of independence, be responsive and sensitive to the child’s feelings and needs whilst setting clear boundaries.Enabling environments are where they value all people, children and their parents/carers and value all learning. Children are taught through playful, stimulating occasions across the ‘prime’ and ‘specific’ areas of learning. Specific areas include literacy, maths, arts and design and understanding the world and prime areas include physical development, language and communication and emotional, social and personal development. Stimulating resources, rich learning opportunities through play (play teaching) and support for children to take risks and explore will help the children develop well and help the children to learn. • Primary education 5-11 year olds.Most schools in the UK (unless it is very small or admit over 30 children in one year) organise the children into year groups and taught with other children of the same age. In England, the National Curriculum for Key Stages 1 and 2 includes English, maths, science, art, computing, design and technology, geography, history, music and physical education (PE). Key Stage 2 children must study a foreign language also. Key Stage 1 covers Years 1 and 2 with the ages of the children being 5-6 and 6-7 respectively. Key Stage 2 covers Year 3 (ages 7-8), Year 4 (ages 8-9), Year 5 (ages 9-10) and Year 6 (ages 10-11).Children’s progress and learning are assessed continuously by their teachers. This can be via classwork, homework, spelling tests, maths tests and through reading. Children will have a baseline assessment in Reception to measure their abilities when starting school and at the end of Year 1 will have a phonics screening test. In Year 2, the children will be assessed by Key Stage 1 SATs in English and maths and Key Stage 2 SATs in Year 6 in English, spelling, grammar, punctuation and maths. Some schools in some areas will have externally set assessments at specific times throughout their school time. In our school, we also sign up for PIRA/PUMA tests to assess the child’s maths and English attainment and progress. If children wish to enter a private school after primary school (age 11) then they have to take The Common Entrance Exam.• Secondary education 11-16 year olds.Secondary schools must follow the national curriculum and it is organised based on four key stages and twelve subjects. These subjects are classified as ‘core’ subjects being maths, English and science and ‘other foundation’ subjects which are geography, history, music, physical education (PE), languages, computing, design and technology and art and design. Secondary schools must also provide sex and relationship education as well as religious education (RE). Schools are free to choose how they organise the school day, only if the content of the national curriculum programmes are taught to all pupils. These subjects taught are true for Key Stage 3 (ages 11 – 14) however choices of subjects are chosen when the child begins Year 10 for the preparation of GCSEs however, they must still do the core subjects of maths, English and science. The General Certificate of Education (GCSE) are taken in Year 11 (age 16) of Secondary school (Key Stage 4) and these last for two years and includes both examinations and practical work. • Further education/Higher Education – explain the post 16 options for young people and adults.If a young person is born on or after the 1st September 1997 in England, then they must stay in education or training in some form until they are 18 years of age. If the young person is born before that date, then they may leave education at 16. There are many post-16 options such as full-time education at a school or college, apprenticeship or traineeship. Full-time education in a college may be a BTEC National Diplomas or a National Vocational Qualification (NVQs) which are work-based awards achieved by assessments and on the job training. Furthermore, there is Higher National Diplomas (HNDs) which provides further education qualifications for 14 to 19-year olds in England. Students can either study at college or study to do their A-Levels which takes 2 years and is another great way to get into university if they choose or they can go into employment. Apprenticeships combine studying with practical training, which is paid and over one to four years, depending on the apprenticeship, can gain skills and a qualification. If an apprenticeship isn’t possible due to lack of experience, a traineeship, which a wage is paid, offers the necessary training to gain enough experience for either an apprenticeship or employment. An International Baccalaureate (IB) is another avenue for students aged between 16 and 19 years of age. It is an internationally recognised programme of education that leads to a qualification called the IB diploma. It is highly respected by universities and gives the student a better chance to continue their education overseas. Then research at least 3 types of school and explain how they are funded and governed. These could include:• Maintained schoolsMost state schools are maintained schools, which means that they are overseen by the Local Authority. These schools must follow the National Curriculum but can focus on specific subjects as long as the requirements are still met for the National Curriculum. There are four types of maintained schools and their differences are who employs the staff, who owns the buildings and the land and who controls the arrangements for admission. These four types are community schools, foundation and trust schools, Voluntary Aided schools (VA schools) and Voluntary Controlled schools (VC schools). Community school are run and controlled by the Local Authority. The Local Authority owns the buildings and the land, regulates the admission arrangements and employs the staff that work within. Foundation and trust schools are run by their governing body and they employ the staff and set their own admissions criteria for the schools. The buildings and the land are normally owned by the governing body also, but in trust school, it is a charity. Voluntary Aided schools (VA schools) are mostly faith school and a foundation/trust contributes a minor proportion of the capital costs for the school, the land and buildings are frequently owned by the religious organisation and will form the majority on the schools governing body. The governing body sets the admissions criteria but also employs the staff. Voluntary Controlled schools (VC schools) are similar to VA schools but are run by the Local Authority. The Local Authority sets the admissions and employs the staff. The foundation/trust (typically a religious organisation) owns the buildings and land and typically forms a quarter of the governing body. • AcademyAcademies are publicly funded independent schools, run by an academy trust who employs the staff and the academies get money directly from the government and not the local council. However, funding varies between the local authorities and therefore some academies have sponsors such as, universities, voluntary groups and businesses who are responsible for the improvements of their school’s performance. Academies are exempt from following the national curriculum however, they must teach the core subjects of maths, English and science. The curriculum must be ‘broad and balanced’ and the outcomes of the students are monitored by the Ofsted inspections and national floor targets must be reached. The rules on exclusions, admissions and special educational needs must be followed and a clear SEN policy must be established and to follow the code of practice for SEN and vulnerable children.• Grammar schoolGrammar schools are state schools that are funded much the same as other maintained schools, by the government. The government allocates funds, normally on a ‘per pupil’ basis, to the local authority. A local funding formula will then determine how much each school will receive. These schools select their students based on their academic potential by sitting the 11+ exam. However, many of the grammar schools have converted to academy status, which gives them more flexibility over the curriculum and their teaching e.g. some GCSEs may be taken earlier (Year 9 and 10) rather than all GCSEs being done in Year 11. • Independent schoolIndependent schools charge a fee for the child to attend and are not funded by the government. The school itself operates and governs the school and can make a profit from the students attending as they are funded by gifts, fees and endowments. They are casually regulated by the government and inspected via a range of bodies and are governed by independently elected board of governors. These schools are also exempt from following the National Curriculum, but they must give the pupils experience in ‘linguistic, mathematical, scientific, technological, physical human and social, artistic and creative education’. There are no compulsory inspection requirements for achievements and there are no external targets set. They are not required to perform GCSEs; however, most schools do.

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