The concept of Triangulation is derived from land surveying denoting that only

The concept of Triangulation is derived from land surveying, denoting that only a single landmark can enable one to locate a direction while two landmarks will give two bearings with the ability to find a location at an intersection. The rationale of triangulation is built on the notion that the use of one method is not enough to resolve the issue relating to rival explanation. This is because each method utilized gives diverse features relating to empirical reality while on the order hand, the use of several methods in analysis and data collection gives the researcher multiple resources for the research studies (Patton, 2002, pg.247). Triangulation is a qualitative research method utilized by qualitative researchers to establish validity in a qualitative research study by examining the research question from numerous viewpoints. Patton (2002) argued that a common misconstruction is focused on the goal of triangulation to arrive at constancy in approaches or data sources, however, such recognised inconsistencies can be accorded absolute strengths of numerous approaches. According to Patton’s argument, the recognised inconsistencies should not be regarded to influence the evidence or reliability of results in any manner but should be perceived to explore indebt connotation in the data and profound understanding into the connection between the phenomenon under study and inquiry approach. However, the following type of triangulation will be examined accordingly:Theory Triangulation: It is an act of utilizing multiple viewpoints to interpret a set of data. This research method obviously requires them to utilize the expertise of other professionals not necessarily in the same field of study. The common practice of this approach is to bring people from other disciplines to work amicably. Meanwhile, people in a different position in the same discipline are also used. However, in theory, it is accepted that people from different positions and discipline bring in a different viewpoint. Thus, if each evaluator interprets giving information from the different discipline in like manner, then validity is obviously established. i.e. If a researcher interviews nursing mothers to ascertain the role of breast milk to a baby. As a method to triangulate the gathered information, the researcher will share the information with other professional like Nurses, Pharmacist, Public health officers and Nutritionist to ascertain their opinions. In most situation, this process may not be applicable because it is time-consuming.Methodological Triangulation: It includes the use of various quantitative or qualitative approaches to investigate the program. i.e. The result from interview, survey and focus group is however compared to discover similar results. If it is discovered that the conclusion from the different method is considered the same, validity is said to be established. i.e. A researcher conducting an evaluation on vacation incentives as a drive to encourage employees. The researcher could explore the use of observation, interview, document analysis etc to determine changes. Also, the researcher can investigate the participant, caseworkers and members of the families as a quantitative approach. If the conclusions from the various methods are the same or similar, obviously validity is established. However, this method is commonly used but it entails additional resources and time consuming to analyse information from the various method.Data Triangulation: It entails the use of diverse information sources to enhance validity in a study. However, the sources are recognised as program staff, participant, community members etc. I a researcher intend to evaluate a school summer program, the stakeholders would be students, teachers, students’ parents and school administrators. A thorough interview will be carried out with each group to understand their viewpoint on the result of the program. At the stage of analysing data, responses from the different stakeholders would be examined to ascertain areas of divergence and agreement. This is a popular method because the implementation is easy and data triangulation is also easy to extend since it involves different stakeholder and groups.Investigation Triangulation: This method entails the expertise of different investigators at the stage of analysing data. Practically, it consists of an evaluation team in the same field of study, everyone examines the study with a qualitative method perspective (Observation, focus group, interview or case study). A comparison will be made from the findings of each evaluator for deeper and broader understanding to determine the interpretation and perspective of the respective investigators concerning the issue. Thus, if the conclusion of the findings of the respective investigator is the same, this will elevate our confidence and as well make our findings profound. i.e. A researcher is interested in conducting observation on the student at a debate forum to ascertain how well the student can communicate in English, to triangulate data gathered, evaluators from the same will be used. The respective evaluators will have similar observation working materials, after the stage of analysis, validity is affirmed for the skills and practices acknowledged by the respective observer. However, this method is an effective way to establish validity. In practice, it may be difficult to bring together different investigators due to individual schedules and time constraints.The advantage of utilizing triangulation entails, it instigates innovative and creative approach to gain understanding and knowledge about a phenomenon, it increases confidence level in research data, revealing exclusive findings, serves as a lens that gives a clear and thorough understanding about the researched problem and integrates different theories.Triangulation is regarded as a valuable tool in qualitative research, but an individual should take caution to consider the advantages and disadvantages before utilizing it. If a researcher sees the need for triangulation, numerous triangulations can be considered. i.e. Methodological, theory, investigator and data. Triangulation is a useful tool that can broaden the researcher’s perception of the problems and heightens confidence in qualitative study findings.

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