11 BackgroundIn context of Nepal 90 of the people are dependent on the

1.1 Background:In context of Nepal, 90% of the people are dependent on the agriculture (Palikhe, 2002) and produced 216,055 Tons of citrus fruit (FAO, 2016) and the production of citrus fruit is decreased due to pest (Timilsina, April 15, 2019).1.1.1 PesticidesAs the human population increases there is a scarcity of land for cultivation due to human settlement leading to the food insecurity which bring the formation and development of various insecticides. Pesticides are the toxic drug that is used to destroy fatal pests in seed, plants, tree, animals, birds etc. pesticide Act, 2048 (1991). Toxic residues in food, air and soil, pollution to environment, reduction of beneficial pest, Interferences in eco-system, reactivation of pest after some time and poisoning in the ecosystem and human health are some of the adverse effect of hazardous pesticides (Sharma, 2018).1.1.2 PestThe term pest is a self-assertive name and has no environmental validity as few insects can be viewed as nuisances at a specific occasion and advantageous at some other point. An insects are considered as a pest when it is competition with humans for some resources and when found in huge number (Metcalf & Luckmann, 1994). In the worldwide, around 10,000 types of pest attack crops, 1,800 types of weeds and some 80,000-100,000 plant ailments brought about by algae, fungi, bacteria and viruses (Diwakar et al., 2008).1.1.3 Citrus treeCitrus tree are the Rutaceae family tree having 140 genera and 1300 species. In Nepal, Citrus is a mjor cultivated crops covering an area of 49% (27890 ha) with the productivity of 10.86 mt/ha of the total growing area (MoAD, 2009). Mandarin orange, Lime, sweet orange and lemon are the major cultivated citrus grown in Nepal, where 45 districts are engaged in citrus tree cultivation. Among 45 districts, Dailekh have high productivity (MoAD, 2008). Mainly citrus plants are cultivated by indigenous germplasm (Kaini, 1995). Unfavorable soil condition, drought, improper orchard management, unsystematic manuring and field incidence of different diseases and insects are some of the factors that resultsin the declination of citrus productivity in Nepal (Acharya, 2011; Khumaltar, 2011; Paudyal et al., 2002; Subedi, 2000). Citrus tree are especially grown as semi-commercial to commercial scale on hilly terraces of Nepal (MoAD, 2009). Nepal ranks at 46 number in citrus production all over the world (FAO, 2013). Kumquats (Citrus japonica)Kumquat is a fertile and productive little thick tree of the Rutaceae family, which gives oval or round-formed natural products with a smooth, brilliant orange skin (Dianxiang Zhang, 2008). Diaphorina citri, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, Myzus persicae are the major insect’s pest found in kumquat (Lin et al., 2016). Pomelo (Citrus maxima) Orange (Citrus sinensis) Sweet lemon (Citrus limotta) Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix) Trifolate (Citrus Figure 1:: Production ratio of Citrus fruit on NepalSource: FAO, 20151.1.4 Pest on citrus treesPseudococcus citri, Pseudococcus bakeri, Pseudococcus citrophilus and Pseudococcus longispinus are the major pests found in citrus plant, sometime Pseudococcus ryani and Ceroputo arctostaphylii are accidental pests on citrus plant (Clausen, 1915). In Nepal, Taxoptera aurantia and Throscrhiza citrii are the common pests that are found in citrus plant (PRMD, 2015).1.1.5 Scale insects on Citrus treeScale insects are well-known pests on plants especially on perennial plants such as fruits and nut trees, woody ornamentals, forest trees and shrubs and indoor plantings. Scale insects destroy the plants by feeding on the plant sap leading to the premature drop of leaves, unchecked heavy infestation, Discoloration in infected trees and fruits, deformation of twigs and branches and formation of gall on plants (Kosztarab & Kozár, 2012).1.2 Rationale of the studyNowadays, the ratio of using pesticides is being increased during the field and post-harvesting for the protection and control of undesirable insects for the optimization of yield production(Johnson, 2008). Where the residues of various pesticides are found in the skin of citrus fruit and it’s concentration depend upon the frequency of applications and class of pesticides (Ray, January 29, 2013). Due to maximum use of pesticides it leads to toxic affect in the human health and can lead to cancer (Kim et al., 2017). In case of Nepal, no study is carried out on the affect of pesticides to the pests (insect) on the citrus trees so to address this gap I carried this issue by investigating the distribution of citrus insect pest on citrus pest on citrus fruit trees in National Centre for Fruit Development, Kirtipur, Nepal.In order to determine this gap, I collect the insects two time before and after the use of pesticides at the month of March and April and by determining by their abundance.The use of pesticides is widespread in agriculturalpractice for field and post-harvest protection andmany compounds may be applied in order to controlundesirable moulds or insects. Indeed, a broad rangeof insecticides is commonly applied on field forprotection of fruits against pests for the optimizationof yield productionThe use of pesticides is widespread in agriculturalpractice for field and post-harvest protection andmany compounds may be applied in order to controlundesirable moulds or insects. Indeed, a broad rangeof insecticides is commonly applied on field forprotection of fruits against pests for the optimizationof yield productionThe use of pesticides is widespread in agriculturalpractice for field and post-harvest protection andmany compounds may be applied in order to controlundesirable moulds or insects. Indeed, a broad rangeof insecticides is commonly applied on field forprotection of fruits against pests for the optimizationof yield production1.3 Objectives1.3.1 General objective• To determine the citrus insect pest on citrus pest on citrus fruit trees.1.3.2 Specific objective• Effect of pesticides on pests of citrus plant.• To find out the frequency of insects on citrus fruit.1.4 Limitation of study• This study is mainly confined to citrus plant.• This study is only confined to spring season.• The insects were only trapped through net swipe and scaling which is observed for only five minutes during observation period.CHAPTER II: Literature ReviewCloyd and Dickinson, (2006) reported in his study that Cryptolaemus montrouzier Mulsant and Parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard are the beneficial insects and acts as a natural enemy to Citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri.2.1 2.2 Policy, plan and Legal review2.2.1 ConstitutionChapter 3, article 36 of the constitution of Nepal 2072 (2015) has the provision of right relating to the food which describes as every citizen shall have right to be safe from the state of being danger of life from scarcity of food.2.2.2 Policy3.1 Agricultural policy 2061 (2004):It emphasizes competitiveness of agriculture sector encouraging farmers to go for commercial production. The long-term vision of the agriculture sector is to bring improvement in the living standards through sustainable agricultural development by transforming subsistence agricultural system into a commercial and competitive agricultural system. The policy aims at achieving high and sustainable economic growth through commercial agriculture system contributing to food security and poverty reduction. According to article 4.1, section 11, the supply of the main production inputs (improved livestock, fingerling, chemical fertilizer, seeds etc.) shall be guaranteed by regularly monitoring their imports, production and stocks. 4.1 Pesticide policy5.1 2.2.3 Acts6.1 Food Act 2023(1966) and Food Rules 2027 (1970)Food Act 1966, is the primary legislation governing regulation of food safety in Nepal. The act and rules are continuously being amended as an attempt to comply with international standard and guidelines (Bajagai, 2012). Food Act 2023, of article 3 and 4, prohibition on production, sale or distribution of adulterated foodstuff or sub-standard foodstuff by lying or misleading. Likewise, article 5 defines about punishment that starts from one thousand Rupees to those who produces, sells, distributes, exports or imports the sub-standard foodstuffs. Article 8, further describe about examination of foodstuffs, whether it is adulterated or sub-standard. Article 13, said that the government bodies are responsible for enforcement of food safety related rules and regulations and describes their functions and responsibilities. 7.1 EPA 2053 (1997)According to EPA 2053 (1997) there is a general guidance to manage pesticides in different fields on crop production (nurseries, greenhouses, forestry) and is enforced into 1994.8.1 Pesticides act 2048 (1991)According to Pesticides Act, 2048 (1991) there is a provision on the import, production, sale and use of the pesticides are made in order to destroy fatal pests in different seeds, plants, trees, creatures, winged animals and so forth by late king Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, with the counsel and assent of the Council of Ministers, as per Article 129 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 2047 (1990).9.1 Water Resource Act, 2049 (1992)Article 19 of subsection 2, highlighted that no one shall pollute water resources by way of using or putting ay litter, industrial wastes, poison, chemical or toxicant to the effect that the pollution tolerance limit of the water resources as prescribed. Article 21 and 22 highlights about license and penalties respectively and article 24 talks about the power of Government of Nepal that applied to those who go against these act and rules.10.1 Plant Protection Act, 2064 (2007)According to Plant protection Act, 2064 (2007) there is a legal provision for preventing the introduction, establishment, prevalence and spread of pests while importing and exporting plants and plant products, promoting trade in plants and plant products by adopting appropriate measures for their effective control and therefore enacted by legislature of parliament. According to chapter 5, article 18 if quarantine pests in any area is found thereof have to inform to nearby inspector. And article 19 gives provision of quarantine affected area, if any spread is found. 11.1 Pesticide Management Act 2075 ()New pesticide management act 2075 has been approved by parliament and is in the process from upper house.12.1 2.2.4 Regulations13.1 EPR 2054 (1997):EPR, 1997 clause B of schedule 1, states that establishment of industries manufacturing chemical fertilizers (blending) and pesticides (blending) required proposal for Initial Environmental Examination (IEE). Schedule 2 define about the procedure. Schedule 7 (relating to sub-rule 1 of rule 16) states that pesticides and fertilizers company or industry require certificate of pollution control.14.1 Pesticide regulations 2050 (1993)15.1 According to Pesticide regulation, 2050 (1993) there is arrangement of Pesticide Management Board under the Act. The board encourages to the legislature in the definition of a national strategy with respect to pesticides to keep up co-appointment among private and government underway and conveyance of pesticides, manage and control the nature of pesticides, and plan standard of pesticides.16.1 2.2.5 Conventions17.1 FAO Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides (1985):International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides also referred as Code of Conduct was originally adopted in 1985 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Conference and revised in 2002, promotes sound pesticide management practices that minimize potential risks to human health and the environment. It provides framework for management of all pesticides, including those intended for use in agriculture and public health. Article 3 define about the Pesticide management in which, governments have the overall responsibility and should take the specific powers to regulate the distribution and use of pesticides in their countries. Article 4 define about testing of pesticides.18.1 Basel Convention (1989):The Basel Convention of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous wastes and their Disposal aimed at protecting human health and the environment against the adverse effects of the hazardous wastes. It also develops the criteria for the environmentally sound management wastes and minimization of hazardous wastes generation. Safe packaging, safe storage and disposal of obsolete pesticides are some of the activities done by Basel Convention.19.1 Rotterdam Convention on PIC (1998):Rotterdam Convention on PIC is a multilateral treaty aimed at promoting shared responsibilities and cooperative efforts among parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm. It also aimed at contributing the environmentally sound use of the hazardous chemicals, by facilitating the information exchange about their characteristics by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to parties. The convention creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure. It also built voluntary PIC procedure, initiated by UNEP and FAO in 1989 and ceased on 24 February 2006. PIC procedure consists of an addition of chemical and also severely hazardous pesticide formulations that present a risk under conditions of use in developing countries or countries with economies in transition may also be proposed for inclusion to Annex III of the convention. Parties have nine months to prepare a response concerning the future import chemicals consisting of either a final decision or an interim response.20.1 Stockholm Convention on POPs (2001):It is an international treaty among countries aimed at protecting human health and the environment from POPs. The convention is the outcome of the commitment of the international community to protect human health and the environment from POPs. Once in force it sets a goal of ending the release and use of 12 most dangerous POPs. Parties are required to review and update their National Implementation Plan (NIP) in a manner specified by a decision of the COP. Among others the addition of chemicals to the Annexes in COP5 (2009), COP6 (2011) and COP7 (2013) is a factor that leads to the need to review and update the original NIP for a party. Thus, Parties to the convention will have to review, update and submit the NIPs within two years of the date of entry into force of the amendments to the COP (for chemicals added at COP5 in AUGUST 2012).21.1 SAICM (2006):The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), 2006 is a policy framework to promote chemical safety around the world. SAICM has as its overall objective the achievement of the sound management of chemicals throughout their lifecycle so that, by 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that minimize significant adverse impacts on human health and the environment. SAICM includes agricultural chemicals. It will have an impact on the agricultural sector, in particular on the use and management of pesticides and the implementation of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, the Rotterdam Convention, the Codex Alimentarius and other international undertakings.

Our dedicated nursing writer will craft your paper of
any complexity

just from only $13.90/page

order my paper

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


Hello, dear nurse!

We are happy to help with your assignment, so please place your order using the link below!

Click here to proceed