• Enable social supportConnection is a term that describes the quality of the

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• Enable social supportConnection is a term that describes the quality of the interaction between people and their environment • Connection to peoplei. Connection to people is referred to as enabling social support, such spaces act as a center of interaction and exchange of ideas.As shown in figure 4.10 the open air theatre in a rehabilitation center in Pune enables social support as the occupants access the area of their day to day activities like dining, meditation, cultural program and therapy sessions. Figure 4.10-Open air theatre at a rehabilitation center in PuneSource: https://www.rehab-center.in/muktangan-rehabilitation-center-pune/ii. Connection with people is a continuum from community to privacy; good design allows a gradual transition between these extremes. In the hospital, this transition begins in the lobby. A successful lobby is an open, welcoming area, quieter and less busy than the street outside.iii. From these lobbies, hallways that are more private lead to patient areas. Within hallways, alcoves can provide private spaces for confidential discussions.iv. Windows in hallways help establish a visual connection with outside, providing additional focal points for orientation.v. There is strong evidence that levels of social interaction can be increased—and presumably beneficial social support as well—by providing lounges, day rooms, and waiting rooms with comfortable movable furniture arranged in small flexible groupings. Figure 4.11-A central atrium with lobby beneath that is further leads to patient rooms at Cedars-Sinai Comprehensive Cancer CenterSource: https://www.morphosis.com/architecture/31/ Figure 4.12-Lobby design to promote interactionSource: Brian Schaller, Architectural Healing Environmentsvi. Dual use of circulation space should be exploited to encourage informal association and gathering.  • Connection to naturei. Hospital gardens not only provide restorative or calming nature views, but can also reduce stress and improve outcomes through other mechanisms, for instance, fostering access to social support and providing opportunities for positive escape and sense of control with respect to stressful clinical settings.ii. The gardens can be used for achieving pleasant escape and recuperation from stress. Figure 4.13-Garden space in Espoo HospitalSource http://www.k2s.fi/k2s.html Figure 4.14-Healing garden as a part of hospital buildingSource http://www.coryleinphotography.com • Give a sense of controlI. Giving a sense of control to the immediate environment a patient is put into for instance having a bed switch, so that he/she is capable enough to manage the room applications without any help. This idea also develops independence among the patients which in result provide a positive impact on the patient.II. The idea for the specialist to go to the patient rather than the other way around could also be used.III. It is found that fewer trips were made to patient rooms in radial units as nurses were able to better supervise patients visually from the nursing station, though the average time spent with patients was the same in radial as well as single corridor designs.IV. There is also a conspicuous need for studies that define accessible locations for hand cleaning stations in an evidence-based manner—that is, on the basis of empirical analysis of staff movement paths, visual fields, interactions with patients and families, and work processes.V. Several studies show that most patient falls occur in the bedroom, followed by the bathroom, and that comprehensive fall-prevention programs can have an effect. Design faults identified in the bathroom and bedroom areas included slippery floors, inappropriate door openings, poor placement of rails and accessories, and incorrect toilet and furniture heights. VI. First, noise sources are numerous, often unnecessarily so, and many are loud.Environmental surfaces—floors, walls, and ceilings—usually are hard and sound-reflecting, not sound absorbing, creating poor acoustic conditions.World Health Organization guideline values for continuous background noise in hospital patient rooms are 35 dB, with nighttime peaks in wards not to exceed 40 Db. These guidelines notwithstanding, many studies have shown that hospital background noise levels fall in far higher ranges. Background noise levels typically are 45 dB to 68 dB, with peaks frequently exceeding 85 dB to 90 dB. Apart from worsening sleep, there is strong evidence that noise increases stress in adult patients.