epidemeology assignment

Name Shazina PervaizReg. No# MBS191002Assignment No. 1Submitted To. Dr. Sahar MalikDate 1-10-2019 Table of ContentsBovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) 3Introduction 3Mode of Transmission 3Prevention and Control 3Pandemic Influenza 4Introduction 4 Mode of Transmission 4Direct 4Indirect 4Droplets 4Airborne 4Prevention and Control 5Acquired Respiratory Syndrome 5Introduction 5Symptoms 5Mode of Transmission 6Prevention and Control 6 Bovine Spongiform EncephalopathyIntroductionBSE is a disease of cattle causing degeneration of neurons.It is thought to be caused by an agent present in sheep responsible for scrapie.Exact mechanism is not known but it is considered that mutant Strain of scrapie has been adapted to cause disease in cattle.There is no certain information about the origin of disease but the first case was reported in 1985. [1]Mode of TransmissionIt is considered that the use of infected cattle in rendering process is the main cause of transmission in BSE.Meat and Bone meal (MBM) was used to fulfill the protein need of cattle.In an experiment dairy cattle exhibited more chances of acquiring disease than beef cattle because MBM was supplied in large amount to dairy cattle.The rate was reported to be high in United Kingdom because of less use of organic solvents in rendering processes considering the economic situation.It was considered that, initially scrapie like agent remained inactive.The change in rendering process was become the major cause of epidemic.[2]Oral route of transmission is considered to be followed in cattle and sheep.Prevention and ControlUse of ruminant proteins in feed of ruminant was banned.Although initially this feed was allowed to be given to pigs and poultry because that organisms were considered to be capable of surviving from this agent.But later on feed was banned for all because mixing of pig feed with other feed was also considered a cause of transmission.It was studied that the mostly affected organs were brain and spinal cord therefore use of brain of bovine cattle in human food was strictly prohibited.[3] 2. Pandemic Influenza2.1 IntroductionInfluenza A virus is the major cause of this disease.It has been recorded since the start of history.Influenza virus has the ability of mutation so present generation also has the threat of this disease.Increase in human population and transfer of people from rural to urban areas was a major cause of epidemics of influenza.It is considered that this virus is produced as a result of interaction of avian virus with a human virus.It is considered that it was originated in United States.[4]2.2 Mode of TransmissionFollowing modes of transmission are mostly followed by virus.2.2.1 Direct ContactVirus is transmitted from one organism to another by direct contact between infected and healthy person.2.2.2 Indirect ContactSometimes micro organisms are passed by using a medium.This medium can be any instrument or utensil used by both healthy and diseased person.2.2.3 DropletsDroplets generated by the sneezing or coughing of diseased person can be a major source of passing virus to other organism.2.2.4 AirborneSometimes, micro organisms remain suspended in the air and can affect a healthy person on contact with that person.[5]2.3 Prevention and ControlIn the start, authorities did not pay any significant attention on this disease.When the local health measurements were not able to cope with the disease then certain measures were introduced by authority.These include school closure, ban on gathering in public places.[6]CT imaging can be a best tool for detecting the diseased persons.Analysis of genetic makeup and radiographic imaging techniques has been developed in modern age to study this disease.[7]Diseased persons should not be allowed to travel from one place to another to avoid the epidemic of disease in new area.3. Acquired Respiratory Syndrome3.1 IntroductionThis disease has been recognized in recent years and has got importance at international level.The average age of health care workers having this disease was 35 and 36 years.[8]This disease was caused by coronavirus.Studies on this disease was carried out by selecting 47 patients in Middle East.Only two patients were healthy,remaining had been affected by any disease including diabetes and cardio vascular disease.[9]Studies on epidemic curve for different countries revealed that the virus almost followed the same way of transmission and same measurements were efficient to same extent in different areas. 3.2 SymptomsMajor symptoms of this disease include fever,cough,breathing problem,diarrhea and abdominal pain.[9] Mode of TransmissionAlmost 50% of transmission occurred due to interaction of attendant with diseased person.In 2003, 122 persons from hospital staff were at risk.Among them, 66 nurses,18 assistants,15 physicians,18 respiratory therapists,3 physiotherapist and 2 health care workers were included.The chance of disease in these people were related to their exposure to patients.Physicians and nurses who were concerned with the early care of patients,they were at great risk of acquiring disease.[8]Prevention and ControlMeasures to control this disease are not practicable because source of virus is still not known.Moreover it is considered that some modes of transmission followed by virus has yet not been studies.Present measurements include the availability of best health care conditions by making their least contact with healthy persons including doctors and nurses.[9]Preventive measures for this disease also include isolation and strict hygiene measures in hospitals.[10]ReferencesADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Assiri, Abdullah, Jaff A. Al-tawfi, Abdullah A. Al-rabeeah, Fahad A. Al-rabiah, Sami Al-hajjar, Ali Al-barrak, and Hesham Flemban. 2013. “Epidemiological , Demographic , and Clinical Characteristics of 47 Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Disease from Saudi Arabia : A Descriptive Study.” 3099(13):1–10.Brankston, Gabrielle, Leah Gitterman, Zahir Hirji, Camille Lemieux, and Michael Gardam. 2007. “Transmission of Infl Uenza A in Human Beings.” 3099(07):1–9.Epidemic, Common Source. 1997. “American Journal Of.” 145(11):959–69.Fowler, Robert A., Cameron B. Guest, Stephen E. Lapinsky, William J. Sibbald, Marie Louie, Patrick Tang, Andrew E. Simor, and Thomas E. Stewart. 2004. “Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome during Intubation and Mechanical Ventilation.” 169:1198–1202.Fraser, H., M. E. Bruce, A. Chree, I. Mcconnell, and G. A. H. Wells. 1992. “Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie to Mice.” 1891–97.Glezen, W. Paul. 1996. “Emerging Infections : Pandemic Influenza.” 18(1):64–76.Hatchett, Richard J., Carter E. Mecher, and Marc Lipsitch. 2007. “Public Health Interventions and Epidemic Intensity during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic.”Infections, Influenza A. H. N. Viral, James R. Gill, Zong-mei Sheng, Susan F. Ely, Donald G. Guinee Jr, and Mary B. Beasley. 2009. “Pulmonary Pathologic Findings of Fatal 2009 Pandemic.” 235–43.Smith, Peter G. and Ray Bradley. 2003. “Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ( BSE ) and Its Epidemiology.” 185–98.Wallinga, Jacco and Peter Teunis. 2004. “Similar Impacts of Control Measures.” 160(6):509–16.

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