Exploitation of Juliet Will in Romeo and JulietByWaseem InamReg. Number: 15-AU-PGCM-321A Proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for theDegree of B.S EnglishNovember ,2018Department of EnglishFaculty of ArtsGovernment Post-Graduate College Mardan Chapter 1 IntroductionBackground of the StudyFeminism is a movement of justification for women’s right as equal to men. It is a movement that make different efforts for women to be treated as equal to men. Apparently, it seems to be distant right, and in the history women have been exploited and considered as inferior to men. Krolokke, C.,& Sorensen,A.S.(2006) says about three waves of feminism that usually it’s a notion that has been developed in patriarchal society that female folk is lower and subordinate to man. Due to the subordinate , lower and inferior position in society they are dishoarded and degraded. The first wave of feminism started in 19th century and early 20th century in Europe and United states of America. This wave included liberal rights for women such as right to vote, suffrage ,owning of property and education for female folk. The second wave of feminism carried the slogan of equality, which emerged in 1960 to 1970s in western societies. This wave was associated with women’s empowerments in society. The third wave of feminism as in the second wave of feminism women’s could not achieve their whole rights, so it started in 1990 and still continue . The basis of this was to bring women out of traditional contract marriages and brought new terms such as lesbian and gay connected to Queer theory. Romeo and Juliet, the most renowned romantic play written by William Shakespeare in 1594–96, first published in an unauthorized quarto in 1597, is two star-crossed lovers whose deaths, ultimately unites their families. The play begins at Verona, with a street feud between Montague and Capulet supporters, who are sworn as enemies to each other even their servants are any time ready for fight with each other. This feud causes tragic results for the main characters in the play, Romeo and Juliet. The events contrast hatred and revenge with love and a secret marriage, forcing the young star-crossed lovers to grow up quickly and die tragically in despair. At a ball party Romeo and Juliet fall in love with each other. But they belong to the families who hate each other. They are sure that their families will not allow them to marry. Nevertheless, helped by Friar Laurence, they marry in secret instead without family’s permission. Unfortunately, before their wedding night Romeo kills Juliet’s cousin in a duel, and in the morning Romeo is forced to leave her. Prince orders if he ever returns to the city, he will be put to death. Juliet’s parents tell her she must marry Paris but her parents do not know that she already married with Romeo whom now has killed her cousin. She refuses in the beginning, but later agrees because she plans to fake her death and escape with Romeo forever, with the help of Friar Laurence who design plan for her dead. He gives Juliet a sleeping potion that she may appears to be dead and is to put in a tomb. However, Romeo does not know about the plan, visits her grave, thinks she is dead, and kills himself. When Juliet finally wakes up, she discovers that Romeo is dead and then kills herself too.1.2 Statement of the ProblemFemale is represented inferior, weak, negative stereotypes and subordinate as compared to the man and having no rights for their own decisions as we find in Romeo and Juliet. Feminist writer Simone de Beauvior promotes and campaign for the basic female rights in her book The Second Sex, and thus denies the female subordination and inferiority in her literary works. The present study meant to focus on exploitation of women through Juliet’s character.Research Questions 1) How is Juliet presented as lesser and inferior creature?2) How is marriage a the source of exploitation in Romeo and Juliet?3) Has Juliet the freedom to make her own decisions about life?1.3Research Objectives 1) To show Juliet comparatively as lesser and inferior character. 2) To explore marriage as a source of exploitation in Romeo and Juliet. 3) To find out whether Juliet has freedom or not to make decisions about her life.1.4Rationale of the StudyShakespeare’s play Rome and Juliet is associate with broad literary world, therefore a vast study is required. Romeo and Juliet reflects the male domination over women. The present research is conducted to show the impact of patriarchy on the life of Juliet. It will also analyze the exploitation and deprivation of Juliet from her basic rights.1.5Significance of the studyThe present study is qualitative in nature. Feminism in Romeo and Juliet has not been studied with much consideration and devotion so this study will help the students to know about feminism and how women are considered as lesser and stereotyped in society. The purpose of this study is to point out female exploitation, discrimination, and degradation that female usually experience with help of Juliet character.it will also explore that female (Juliet) have no will of marriage right. The researcher aims to conduct the present research to point out exploitation of Juliet’s will in Romeo and Juliet .It will provide a guide line for students in the future to conduct research in this area.Chapter 2 Literature ReviewRome and Juliet is a romantic play that is written by William Shakespeare. The play has been discussed from different point of views. A number of critics and reviewers have discussed it from different angles. Some of them are discussed below: M.Ayaub Jajja (2014) in his work has critically examine from feminist point of view about the place of women in Romeo and Juliet. The main hypothesis of this study is that women in Shakespearean tragedies are portrayed and presented as lesser and negative stereotypes. The characters like lady Montague, Nurse and Juliet decision’s about their lives are to be taken by the husband/ father to impose decision’s. The real cause of tragedy in Romeo and Juliet is the patriarchy’s denial of freedom and the right to choose her husband to Juliet. Brain Gibbons (1980) in his introduction to Romeo and Juliet focuses mainly lyricism and the sonnet like quality of this tragedy. He has also suggested the larger role of literature in effecting reconciliation, greater good through the celebration of the power of faith and love and finally the restoration of order in the cosmos. Donald A. Stauffer 1949 has identified love and its healing power as the major theme of the play. John F. Maune (2015) in his article Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet in an EFL life science course. Content-based EFL courses are thought to interest students which will then activate intrinsic motivation for language learning. However, not all subjects innately appeal to students, particularly Life Science. A film version of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet was watched in class in order to teach a wide range of biological concepts. It has shown that the student taking more interest in watching movie of Romeo and Juliet in classrooms.Paula Ressler (2005) an English teacher in his work Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include all students in meaningful dialogue and to create engaged and successful learners and caring school communities. Drawing on classroom and workshop experience, Paula Ressler discusses ways to approach “the most renowned example of heterosexual romance and tragedy” through an LGBTQ ( Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender) lens.Brittney M..Herman (2017) in his work Star-Crossed Oppression in a Patriarchal Society: a Feminist Critique of Rome and Juliet. Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet tells the story of two young lovers who endure chronic gender-specific oppression due to the expectations of Verona’s patriarchal society. Both major and minor characters clarify the standard gender roles in the society. In this essay I argue that the pressure imposed by this patriarchy and the perpetuation of these patriarchal values by the families of the lovers eventually leads to the tragic death of Romeo and Juliet. I assert that the death of the lovers is a result of institutionalized sexism and necessity for gender role fulfillment. This work uses feminist technique that involves looking at the oppression of both men and women in the play. Following titles were discussed in this paper Demonstrations of Verona as Patriarchal, Juliet’s Refusal to Conform, Romeo’s Inability to Conform, and Tragedy as a Direct Result of Oppression and the lovers eventually kill themselves because they cannot conform to their gender roles. Syliva Purimas (2015) in her work The Feminist Approach In The Story Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare for her it is a paly that texts are loaded with the ideology of patriarchy and present the women as lesser and inferior to men. Women don’t occupy such equal positions with men in society, socially, politically and economically. Women’s are presented as immoral and negative stereotypes. The real cause of the tragedy is the denial of the freedom and the righto choose her husband to Juliet. Charlotte H. Oberg (1996) in her work Character and theme in Romeo and Juliet and Troilus and Cressida : a comparative critical study. In this paper various analogous elements in Romeo and Juliet and Troilus and Cressida have been discussed except for the obvious differences in the characters of Juliet and Cressida. She says that in Romeo and Juliet there is no vulgarity and is first and last a love story, with few philosophical digressions or implications as compare to Troilus and Cressida languages used by the characters are different from one another that’s why still in the hearts of people. Nilay Avci (2016) in her work Forbidden Love of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and Fuzûlî’s Layla and Majnun says that in spite of the culture differences, both of the works are based on archetypal themes. The only difference is in Romeo and Juliet there is hate and violence in addition to love and passion while in Layla & Majnun love exceeds the limit of human love, turning into dive love. These two works still affect readers and the forbidden love theme is one of the most favorite and preferred subjects of poetry.A brief review of literature presented here establishes the context and the ample justification for present study. Keeping in view the reviews of various writers and critics, it comes forward that majority of them have discussed Romeo and Juliet from different point of views. The present research intends to analyze the play from feminist point of view. It will focus on that how Juliet is considered as lesser and inferior as compared to men. It will also explore that that in Romeo and Juliet marriage is a source of exploitation of Juliet’s will. Furthermore, it will find out that whether she has freedom to make decisions about her life or not.Chapter 3 Research Methodology3.1Research paradigmThe present research will be qualitative in nature. The researcher will gathers only relevant data from the text Romeo and Juliet. The research will focus on Juliet’s deprivation from her basic rights. The researcher will collect data from the that support the statement. The researcher will explain and analyses the collected data through qualitative and descriptive method. The researcher will also explore the collected pertinent data in accord to the statement. 3.2Design of the studyThe present study for this research will be based on feminism in the play Romeo and Juliet. This research will focus on exploitation of Juliet’s will in play. This study will serve as frame work for the analysis of the text of Romeo and Juliet through critical concept of Simone de Beauoir.3.3Data CollectionThe researcher will use primary and secondary data for this research. Source for the primary data will be the text of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet while the secondary data will be drawn from the works done by other writers and critics on this related to the present research problem.3.4Data Analysis The present research will be qualitative in nature. The analysis of the data collected will be based on the framework of feminist work “The Second Sex” will be carefully applied over play Romeo and Juliet in this research frame work various passages of the text are selected and will be analyzed.ReferencesAvci, Nilay. (2016). Forbidden Love of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and Fuzûlî’s Layla and Majnun. International Journal of Literature and Arts. Special Issue: World Literature, Comparative Literature and (Comparative) Cultural Studies. Vol. 4, No. 1-1, pp. 1-4.doi: 10.11648/j.ijla.s.2016040101.11Beauvoir, S. D. (1972). The Second Sex. Trans.- HM Parshely Harmondsworth: Penguin.Gibbons, B (1980). Introduction to The Arden Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.Herman, Brittney. (2017). Star-Crossed Oppression in a Patriarchal Society: A Feminist Critique of Rome and Juliet. Retrieve from https://publish.tntech.edu/index.php/PSRCI/article/view/100/pdf.Jajja, M. Ayub (2014). A Feminist Reading of Shakespearean Tragedies: Frailty, Thy Name is Women. Pakistan journal of Commerce and Social Science. Vol. 8(1), 228-227.John F. Maune (2015) Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet in an EFL life science course. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187704281500168.Krolokke, C., & Sorensen, A. S. (2006). Gender communication theories and analyses: From silence to performance (NO.5). Sage. Oberg, Charlotte H., “Character and theme in Romeo and Juliet and Troilus and Cressida : a comparative critical study” (1966). Master’s Theses. Paper 914.Purimas, Sylvia.(2015) The Feminist Approach In The Story Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. Retrieved from https://sylvialasserre.wordpress.com/2015/08/07/the-feminist-approach-in-the-story-romeo-and-juliet-by-william-shakespeare.Ressler Paula (Sep., 2005). Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through “Romeo and Juliet” Vol. 95, No. 1 pp. 52-57.Shakespeare, W. (1984). Romeo and Juliet. Hutchinson Publishing.