health and social care values[230] SINEAD

Contents PageP.2 Introduction P.2 AimP.2 Health and Social Care ValuesP.3 Explain how beliefs and prejudices can lead to discriminatory behaviour, providing two examples P.4 Analyse the long and short-term effects of discrimination on the individual, providing one example of each.P.5 Explain and evaluate: – the concept of confidentiality, freedom of information and a working code of ethics.P.6 Explain what is meant by the term empowerment in care terms and discuss, using one example, its importance to the individual.P.7-8 Explain the principle factors that influence and promote independence, advocacy and autonomy in the care work environment, giving two examples of each.P.8-9 Evaluate the strategies used to influence and promote independence and autonomy in the care work environment, giving at least two examples.P.9 ConclusionP.10 AppendixP.11-12 Bibliography Report of Health and Social Care ValuesIntroduction Aim: The aim of this report is to explain the health and social care values, whilst analysing and evaluating the health and social care service provisions with reference to legislation and policies that may apply.Health and social Care Values:Health and social care values aid to guide professionals in giving the most appropriate care to everyone. There are three main aspects that must be promoted by professionals:“Equality and diversity, Fostering individual’s rights and responsibilitiesMaintaining confidentiality of information” (Weebley, 2018) [online]Consequently, The Care Value Base charter was devised by the Care Sector Consortium in 1992. This was devised to provide a common set of principles and values for all health and social care workers to foster. However, the care value base charter was the first basic premises for which ethical choices and judgments could be made. However, for Health and Social care values to be promoted effectively, professionals would need to practice and implement several acts and legislations to protect citizens and organise society.Health and social Care legislation include:The Care Act of 2014Data Protection Act 1998Equality Act 2010Freedom of information Act 2010Health and Social Work Act 2012Human Rights Act 1998Care Quality Commission (2018) [online]Explain how beliefs and prejudices can lead to discriminatory behaviour, providing two examples:According to the Human Rights Act of 1998 everyone has freedom of religion and belief, this includes culture beliefs, religious beliefs, moral beliefs and values. However, beliefs and prejudices regularly stem from stereotypes, or beliefs about specific groups of people. “Prejudice is most commonly used in reference to a preconceived judgment of someone due to their social class, gender, race, ethnicity, disability, age, religion or sexual orientation” Walsh et al. (2011.p.65). Consequently both, beliefs and prejudices can lead to discriminatory behaviour due to their similar factor of being a preconceived judgment. E.g.: A preconceived judgment such as assuming someone’s disability will restrict them from making their own decisions. Such assumption will cause inaccurate information or unreasonable judgement, “leading to being prejudice against a person/s, this is known as a form of discrimination” Walsh et al. (2011.p.66).E.g.: In not respecting someone’s cultural moral and beliefs, would contribute to influencing their identity. Such as; a patient requiring to use a prayer room and their request dismissed.Analyse the long and short-term effects of discrimination on the individual, providing one example of each:The long-term effects of discrimination on an individual may cause sadness, anxiety, depression and stress. Such mental and physical effects can lead to mental disorders and an increased risk of alcohol and drug abuse.According to a recent study recorded by UCLA newsroom [online] experiencing significant amounts of discrimination over time can lead to changes in the way the brain processes information, disrupting, for example, the regions involved in planning and decision-making. This research displays the effects of long term discrimination and the impact on the individuals cognitive function.E.g.: Long term racial discrimination can affect an individual from socially interacting with other outside their racial group due to the racial discrimination the individual has received as this may have caused anxiety and trust issues. Short term effects of discrimination can also impact on an individual’s general well-being with negative impact to their social relationships, causing low self-esteem and sadness. Such effects can often translate into anxiety, depression and stress, Causing eating disorders, nervous breakdown and social withdrawal. E.g.: An individual being excluded from an activity because of their gender and this may cause self-esteem issues and stress due to being isolated.Explain and evaluate: – the concept of confidentiality, freedom of information and a working code of ethicsConfidentiality is the protection of personal information, such as name, date of birth, bank details, medical records and personal care issues. Personal information verbally or documented must be kept confidential to protect an individual’s rights under the Data Protection Act of 1998. Consequently, confidentiality helps to build and develop trust with the individual and professionals. However, Issues may arise relating to confidentiality, such as the need to disclose information to protect a service user or the public from harm. Therefore, confidentiality may be breached if the purpose is justified, but only if “consent cannot be obtained from the individual, then the professional will seek advice from a senior colleague and the reasons are documented clearly” Brightman and Griffiths (2013, p52-56).Advantage: Full confidence is assured as personal details are kept secure.Disadvantage: If a person is at harm or risk, it will take longer for professionals to access information that may be crucial to their welfare. The Freedom of information Act of 2000 is a legislation that enables public access to information held by public authorities. Information such as medical records or data held by the local authority. Freedom of information consents an individual the legal ability to access their own personal information, upon request in writing. This is known as a “subject access request which is included in the Access to Personal Files Act of 1987” (mind.org.uk, 2018) [online]. Freedom of information “fosters an openness and transparency in government which is vital to society, as it improves public confidence and trust” (Information Commissioners Office, 2018) [online]. However, it is an essential human right for individuals to access their own information without reason.Advantage: Empowers a service user as they can access their information without reason. Disadvantage: The freedom of information act only applies to public authorities and not to private entities. Working code of ethics is a set of principles created “to provide a common set of ethical principles and values for health and social care workers” stretch and Whitehouse (2010, p.5). It outlines the code of conduct of behaviour and attitudes to apply, whilst it enhances guaranteed care and support for all individuals. However, it is a voluntary code, but is also seen as a sign of best practice. The framework includes; Professionals upholding human rightsRespecting the rights and dignity of peopleComplying with the laws and regulations Seeking informed consentTreating personal information confidentialApply safeguardsThe Working code of ethics concept is designed to reinforce and encourage professionals to apply morals and value to their practice, whilst it enhances a personal provision for all individual’s (Skills for Care, 2018) [online]. Advantage: Outlines a framework for professionals to abide by, which provides equality. Disadvantage: The working code of ethics is a voluntary code, which may suggest the code is less effective as it is not implemented through a legislation or contract.Explain what is meant by the term empowerment in care terms and discuss, using one example, its importance to the individual:Empowerment of service users is extremely important as it “permits them to make informed decisions and choices about their life” stretch and Whitehouse (2010, p.5). However, professionals must provide service users with enough knowledge and information to encourage empowerment. Consequently, this then builds the service users self-esteem, confidence, enhances independence and personal strengths. E.g. A service user being given the opportunity to participate in the planning of their care. Such as; how many days they wish to attend day center and what activities they wish to take part in.Explain the principle factors that influence and promote independence, advocacy and autonomy in the care work environment, giving two examples of each:There are several factors that influence and promote, independence, advocacy and autonomy, Such as:Accessibility: provides opportunity to access services and different environments. Mental Capacity: is a vulnerable factor that may influence care decisions and delivery due its complex area.Empowerment: providing individuals with knowledge to enhance their active involvement in decision making processes.Equal Opportunity: Equality Act of 2010 allows the right to be treated without discrimination of your race, age or sex and therefore is an influencing factor that promotes opportunity for everyone.Disability: Disability discrimination Act of 1995 was designed to disable barriers which may then encourage ability and decision making.Ability: restrictions to an individual’s ability that may influence their aptitude.Independence E.g.: A carer prompting a service user to carry out their own personal care (if the service user has the ability to).E.g.: A disabled service user may require support with their shopping. However, instead of the carer doing the shopping for the service user, the service user should be given the choice to carry out the task and choose items, with the assistance and support from the carer.Advocacy E.g.: An Advocate will encourage someone with learning disabilities to make informed decisions about their own health and social care needs” Southwalk Council (2018) [online], such as which day center they would prefer to attend.E.g.: An advocate will express your views and represent your interests, such as an older person who wishes to remain in their own home, but the local authority has requested residential care. The advocate will express the older persons concerns and ensure health and social care services follow the correct procedures.AutonomyE.g.: A patient in hospital may need assistant with personal care, however instead of the nurse giving the patient a bed bath the nurse should offer the patient several options for washing, such as a shower or to wash in the bathroom with support.E.g.: Offering a hearing impaired residential service user, the option of going to a social club, will help maintain a person’s autonomy, whilst encouraging social interaction and building confidence through ability and empowerment.Evaluate the strategies used to influence and promote independence and autonomy in the care work environment, giving at least two examples:Strategies used to Influence and promote independenceEncouragement to interact with others will break the cycle of dependency as it will provide opportunities of socialisation whilst building confidenceEducating increases independence as it creates awareness and builds knowledge Behaviour change to help adapt to a different way of thinking to encourage positive changeProviding care services to promote a service user’s independence Providing adaptions to improve a service users quality of life by improving their access and mobilityE.g.: An occupational therapist to provide equipment for an elderly person to remain independent and safe in their own home.Advantage: Several approaches can be used to influence independence to improve a individuals quality of life.Disadvantage: A service user may wish to be isolated and withdrawn from society and therefore, other than encouragement the service users request would need to be respected. Strategies used to Influence and promote autonomyProviding care support for daily tasks to maintain a service user’s autonomyPersonal budget to enable social care support, with service users managing their own careRehabilitation services to promote autonomy rather than long term careE.g.: An elderly hospital patient with a broken arm is discharged home to receive short term intermediate care services, rather than short term residential care. The influence of the service user to remain comfortable in their own home whilst providing the service user with support in their daily tasks promotes autonomy. Advantage: Encourages independence and choice for all individuals Disadvantage: Due to services users having the ability to personalise their care package, they may not receive the adequate support and care. ConclusionInevitably, health and social care values include individual’s beliefs and prejudice. However, this can lead to discriminatory behaviour due to lack of knowledge and preconceived judgment. Consequently, an analysis of long and short-term effects of discrimination both prove similar negative outcome on an individual. The concept of confidentiality, freedom of information and a working code of ethics does promote and protect an individual’s safety, independence and opinion. Promotion of empowerment in health and social care promotes self- esteem and confidence, as it enables the individual to make informed decisions and choices about their life. Furthermore, there are many principle factors that may influence and promote independence, advocacy and autonomy in health and social care, such as, mental capacity and accessibility. But strategies used to influence and promote independence and autonomy will provide a fame work for professionals to encourage behaviour change and improve quality of life.AppendixSkills for Care (2018) [online]Word Count:1,885BibliographyBurton.J.(1993)The Handbook of Residential Care, Institutional Care [online] Available from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/havering/reader.action?docID=170034 [Accessed on 18/01/2018]Care Quality Commission (2018) [online] [Available from:]http://www.cqc.org.uk/guidance-providers/regulations-enforcement/regulations-service-providers-managers-relevant [Accessed on: 27/03/2018]Equality and human rights commission (2016) Protection from discrimination, Equality Human Rights [online]Available from: https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/human-rights-act/article-14-protection-discrimination[Accessed on 01/02/2018]Hudson.B.L(2006) Handbook of Theory for Practice Teachers in Social Work, Behavioral Social Work, London and Philadelphia, Jessica KingsleyInformation Commissioners Office (2018)[online][Available from:] https://ico.org.uk/for-organisations/guide-to-freedom-of-information/what-is-the-foi-act/ [Accessed on 25/03/2018]Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2002) by the American Psychological Association. Vol 82Lesley-Anne Long et. el (2010) The Law and Social Work, Contemporary issue for practice, second edition.Hampshire:Macmillan Mandelstam. M (2009) Community Care Practice and the Law. London: Jessica Kingsley PublishersMind.org.uk (2013) [online] Available from:https://www.mind.org.uk/information-support/legal-rights/personal-information/overview/#.Wgb7lpVFDIU [Accessed on 06/02/2018]Skills for Care (2018)[online][Available from:]http://www.skillsforcare.org.uk/Home.aspx [Accessed on: 25/03/2018]Stretch, B and Whitehouse, M, eds (2010) Health & Social Care Book 1. Essex: Pearson companyStretch, B and Whitehouse, M, eds (2010) Health & Social Care Book 2. Essex: Pearson companyUCLA newsroom [online] [Available from] (http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/discrimination-can-be-harmful-to-your-mental-health [Accessed on 23/03/2018] Walsh.M (2011) Health & Social Care: Level 2 diploma candidate handbook: London, HarpercollinsWeebley Health and Social Care Values (2018) [online] [Available from:] https://sstoolbox.weebly.com/health-and-social-care-values.html [ Accessed on 27/03/2018]World Health Organisation (2018)[online][Available from:]http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/mental-health/priority-areas/empowerment-of-service-users-and-carers [Accessed on 24/03/2018]Weebley, Health and Social Care Values (2018) [online] [Available from:] https://sstoolbox.weebly.com/health-and-social-care-values.html [ Accessed on 27/03/2018]

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