Table of Contents

INSECT PEST ON DECIDUOUS FRUIT TREES: A CASE STUDY ON NATIONAL CENTRE FOR FRUIT DEVELOPMENT, KIRTIPURCHAPTER I: INTRODUCTIONI.1. BackgroundI.1.1. Deciduous fruit treeTemperature is considered as the most important component determining the distribution of plant species on earth and it has been known since the beginning of farming(Rodrigo, 2000). Deciduous fruit trees means losing their leaves in the winter. Deciduous fruit trees need a certain amount of exposure to cold winter temperatures each year so, dormant in mid-winter(UF/IFAS, 2017).Climate and weather are main component for deciduous fruits, winter dormancy is one important phase of annual cycle, to break dormancy, sufficient exposure to cold winter temperatures is required, known as vernalisation or chilling(Darbyshire, Webb, Goodwin, & Barlow, 2011). It is mostly comprised of pome fruit (apples, pears) and stone fruit (peaches, nectarines, plums, apricots). Also include grapes, quinces, cherries, persimmons, pomegranates and figs. The deciduous plants have capacity to grow, even after being separated from the parent tree at harvest time. That’s mean these fruits carry on physiological process like respiration and transpiration during storage(Smock, 1944).Deciduous fruit trees have highly heterozygous genotypes due to their allogamy and vegetative reproduction. Because of this trait, it has limited the progress of conventional breeding programs(Hidano & Niizeki, 1988). Excess vegetative growth is a significant problem in deciduous fruits tree particularly in apple and peach tree and that reduces fruit production, increases the need for labor-intensive pruning, lowers fruit quality and increase the pest problems(Miller & Tworkoski, 2003).In case of apple tree, the period between full bloom and harvest, is 90days to 150 days on average and carbohydrates reserve is responsible to sustain early vegetative growth and fruiting(Lauri & Claverie, 2005). The temperature should be less than 7 degree centigrade for the chilling requirement. I.1.2. Pests and scale insectsPests refers to harmful organisms that latch on to plants, awakening them unsuitable for harvest and compete with us for food and spread diseases. In the global, approximately 10,000 species of insects invade crops, 1,800 species of weeds and some 80,000-100,000 plant diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and algae (Diwakar, Jayana & Joshi, 2008). Most of the pest complex is represented by members of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera. Diverse indirect pest that can also affect the fruit quality and production include aphids, leafhoppers and leaf miners. Some of the most common mite pest is red mite(Agnello et al., 2009). The impacts of crop yield and quality will depend on the type of pests present and their abundance. Some pests like a red spider mite and mildew, effect on the vegetative growth while pest like codling moth and apple scab, directly attack the fruit(Fenemore & Norton, 1985).Several species of aphid like Aphis pomi prefer newly develop leaves than the old matured one(Paulson, Hull, & Biddinger, 2005). Different species of lepidoptera including codling moth and leafrollers inhabit apple, feeding on leaves, fruits and vascular system of trees(Lacey, Arthurs, Knight, & Huber, 2007). The green peach aphid is one of the major pest that cause direct damage to both leaves and stems, resulting in leaf curl, shoot stuning and overall devitalization of the tree and reduces the fruit quality(Pascal et al., 2002).Scale insects are vary in their appearance from very small organism (1-2mm) that occur under wax cover (like oyster shells), to shiny pearl-like objects (about 5 mm), to creatures covered with mealy wax. There are about 7,800 species from 49 families on the scale insects (Coccoidea) around the world(García Morales et al., 2016). Most of these species attack various parts of the host plant, leaves, stem, bark, crown, fruits and roots. It ingests plant sap, reduce plant vigor, drop leaves or spottily yellowing, deformation of shoot and twig, blister like gall, fruit drops and effect on the normal physiological activities of the tree with effect on nitrogen, protein, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorophyll “a” and “b”(Hassan, Radwan, & El-Sahn, 2012). White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, is a polyphagus, cosmopolitan pest, which was first discovered in Hawaii in 1997 on papaya, this peach scale on the surface of fruit can cause delays at ports-of-entry or rejection(Follett, 2006). The San Jose scale is one of the most dominant damaging piercing-sucking insect pest of deciduous fruits tree especially in apple trees, that occur on twigs, limb and fruits, defect the tree vigor, growth, and productivity(Buzzetti, Chorbadjian, & Nauen, 2015).I.1.3. PesticidesAccording to Pesticide Act, 2048(1991), “Pesticides mean the poisonous medicine used to destroy fatal pests in seeds, plants, tree, animals, birds, etc.” Mostly used pesticides are insecticides (insect-killer), herbicides/weedicide (weed-killer), fungicide (fungi-killer), nematocide (nemates-killer) and rodenticide (rodent-killer) (Miller, 2002; Diwakar, Jayana & Joshi, 2008). EPA defined pesticide as” any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest and use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant and also use as a nitrogen stabilizer. A disturbance in soil introduced most invasive species and to hold these invasive species pesticides and herbicides are used where it dramatically affects the plant community”(Rogotzke).There is total 169 common name of pesticides registered with 3034 trade name. According to PPD, 2015 total pesticides consumed by fruits are 1.952 kg in the cultivated area of 66.880 ha. I.1.4. Deciduous fruits in NepalNepal is a landlocked mountainous country in South Asia, situated between 26̊ 22’ and 30̊ 27’ north latitude and 80̊ 4’ and 88̊ 12’ east longitude. Nepal is on tenth position in terms of flowering plant diversity that is 6973 in Asia and the 31st on a world scale. There is around 790 food value plant species and 577 cultivated plant species including forage species in Nepal. There are 145 plant species in horticultural crops, in which 40 agricultural plant species are introduced in Nepal until 2013(Gotame et al., 2017; Joshi, Acharya, Gauchan, & Bhatta, 2017).The total cultivation area is 3.96 hectares of which 2.97 million ha are under cultivation. Nepal’s largely depend on rain harvesting, only 26% is the irrigated area of total cultivation area. Deciduous fruit tree growing is not traditional in Nepal. It is only limited to home garden and fruits are used for domestic consumption. Many new cultivars of deciduous fruits were introduced from the period 1960 to 1973 with support from the Indian Cooperation Mission (ICM)(Devkota, 1999).At present, deciduous fruits are considered as the most important fruit crops in Nepal. It has been grown fruitfully in mid and high mountainous areas from Eastern to the Far Western zone of the country. Sub-humid and dry temperate areas are considered to be most favorable for particularly high quality apple production where elevation ranges from 1800-2800m.a.s.l. Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) is very popular as it needs low chilling hours and well adapted to the warmer temperate region. Peach is a very common stone fruit that grow throughout the mid elevations between 1000-2800m.a.s.l. Among deciduous fruits, apple is the most prominent, important crop in terms of area, production and household economy in remote mountain region of Nepal(Atreya & Kafle, 2016). I.2. Rationale of the studyNepal is the agricultural country, where 66% of people directly engaged in farming. Though study on pests had been studied in large number in Nepal but in agricultural crops and citrus fruit. Few numbers of study had been studied in case of deciduous fruits. This study has been conducted to know the pests on the deciduous fruits and also their abundance and also about the pesticides that has been used to control and minimize the number of pests. This study differentiate the abundance of pest before and after the uses of pesticides. In other words, it is studied to know the efficiency of pesticides used on deciduous fruits. The study is done in National Centre for Fruit Development, Kirtipur, which is the horticulture. I.3. ObjectiveBroad ObjectiveTo know the Specific objective• To know the pesticides uses in deciduous fruits• To know the abundance of pest• To know the efficiency of pesticides on pestI.4. Limitation• Only the deciduous fruit’s pests and scale insect is studied.• Study is limited only on study area ; National Centre for Fruit Development• Insects collection is done within month of February to May of 2019• Not whole deciduous fruit species is studied, only apple, plum, peach, pear and Japanese guava is observed.II. LITERATURE REVIEWII.1. In the context of NepalPartap & Partap, 2002, stated in their report that, apple trees have been planted in 55 districts of Nepal. In Jumla uses of pesticides are very limited, great diversity and abundance of natural insect pollinators like honeybees, bumblebees, butterflies, flies and other insects. Pestcides like metacid, malathion, thiodan, sumithion and Bordeaux mixture were used that is obtained from government stores.II.2. Legal review of Nepal• Pesticide Act in 1991According to Pesticides Act, 2048 (1991) the provision on the import, production, sale and use of the pesticides are made in order to destroy fatal pests in different seeds, plants, trees, creatures, winged animals and so forth by late king Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, with the counsel and assent of the Council of Ministers, as per Article 129 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 2047 (1990).• Pesticide Regulation 1993According to Pesticide regulation, 2050 (1993) there is arrangement of Pesticide Management Board under the Act. The board encourages to the legislature in the definition of a national strategy with respect to pesticides to keep up co-appointment among private and government underway and conveyance of pesticides, manage and control the nature of pesticides, and plan standard of pesticides.Other related Laws are• Environment Protection Act 2053(1996) and Environment Protection Rules, 2054 (1997) It provides general guidance to manage pesticides in different fields on crop production (nurseries, greenhouses, forestry) Enforcement initiated in 1994. EPR, 1997 clause B of schedule 1, states that establishment of industries manufacturing chemical fertilizers (blending) and pesticides (blending) required proposal for Initial Environmental Examination (IEE). Schedule 2 define about the procedure. Schedule 7 (relating to sub-rule 1 of rule 16) states that pesticides and fertilizers company or industry require certificate of pollution control.• Plant Protection Act, 2064 and Rules, 2066• Food Act 2023(1966) and Food Rules 2027 (1970)Food Act 1966, is the primary legislation governing regulation of food safety in Nepal. The act and rules are continuously being amended as an attempt to comply with international standard and guidelines(Bajagai, 2012). Food Act 2023, of article 3 and 4, prohibition on production, sale or distribution of adulterated foodstuff or sub-standard foodstuff by lying or misleading. Likewise, article 5 defines about punishment that starts from one thousand Rupees to those who produces, sells, distributes, exports or imports the sub-standard foodstuffs. Article 8, further describe about examination of foodstuffs, whether it is adulterated or sub-standard. Article 13, said that the government bodies are responsible for enforcement of food safety related rules and regulations and describes their functions and responsibilities. • Aquatic Life Protection Act, 1961 and Rules• Seed Act, 2045 and Rules 2054• Consumer Protection Act and Rules• Soil and Water Conservation Act, 1982• Customs Act, 1962 and Rules, 1962• Solid Waste Management Act, 2011• Water Resource Act, 2049(1992)Article 19 of subsection 2, highlighted that no one shall pollute water resources by way of using or putting ay litter, industrial wastes, poison, chemical or toxicant to the effect that the pollution tolerance limit of the water resources as prescribed. Article 21 and 22 highlight about license and penalties respectively and article 24 talks about the power of Government of Nepal that applied to those who go against these act and rules.II.3. ConventionsInternational Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides also referred as Code of Conduct was originally adopted in 1985 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Conference and revised in 2002, promotes sound pesticide management practices that minimize potential risks to human health and the environment. It provides framework for management of all pesticides, including those intended for use in agriculture and public health. Article 3 define about the Pesticide management in which, governments have the overall responsibility and should take the specific powers to regulate the distribution and use of pesticides in their countries. Article 4 define about testing of pesticides.The Basel Conventional (1989) main target is to control of Trans Boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their disposal. Also develop criteria for the environmentally sound management wastes and minimization of hazardous wastes generation. It does activities like safe packaging, safe storage and disposal of obsolete pesticide.Rotterdam Convention is a multilateral treaty aimed at promoting shared responsibilities and cooperative efforts among parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm. It also aimed at contributing the environmentally sound use of the hazardous chemicals, by facilitating the information exchange about their characteristics by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to parties. The convention creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure. It also built voluntary PIC procedure, initiated by UNEP and FAO in 1989 and ceased on 24 February 2006. PIC procedure consists of an addition of chemical and also severely hazardous pesticide formulations that present a risk under conditions of use in developing countries or countries with economies in transition may also be proposed for inclusion to Annex III of the convention. Parties have nine months to prepare a response concerning the future import chemicals consisting of either a final decision or an interim response. It prior informed consent procedures for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade. Stockholm Convention of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), 2001 is an international treaty among countries aimed at protecting human health and the environment from POPs. The convention is the outcome of the commitment of the international community to protect human health and the environment from POPs. Its aims to eliminate dangerous chemicals and support the transition to safer alternatives. Likewise, target additional POPs for action and clean up old stockpiles and equipment containing POPs. Once in force it sets a goal of ending the release and use of 12 most dangerous POPs. Parties are required to review and update their National Implementation Plan (NIP) in a manner specified by a decision of the COP. Among others the addition of chemicals to the Annexes in COP5 (2009), COP6 (2011) and COP7 (2013) is a factor that leads to the need to review and update the original NIP for a party. Thus, Parties to the convention will have to review, update and submit the NIPs within two years of the date of entry into force of the amendments to the COP (for chemicals added at COP5 in AUGUST 2012) The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), 2006 is a policy framework to promote chemical safety around the world. SAICM has as its overall objective the achievement of the sound management of chemicals throughout their lifecycle so that, by 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that minimize significant adverse impacts on human health and the environment. SAICM includes agricultural chemicals. It will have an impact on the agricultural sector, in particular on the use and management of pesticides and the implementation of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, the Rotterdam Convention, the Codex Alimentarius and other international undertakings. III. MATERIALS AND METHODSIII.1. Study areaIn the past National Centre for Fruit Development is known as Fruit Development Directorate (FDD) as Horticlture Section in 1955, which is now known as Fruit Development Section in 1966. FDD is the central technical body responsible for the overall development of fruits, coffee, tea and ornamental crops in Nepal.III.2. Research designIII.3. MethodsIII.3.1. CollectionInsects were collected before and after the uses of pesticides in the deciduous fruits. Varieties of techniques are used for the collection of insect i.e. direct and indirect method(Morris, 1960). I have used well known tactics, net swipe sampling. Aerial or butterfly net which is of lightweight are used for catching flying insects(McGavin, 2007). Visual collecting is used to collect scale insects, which is a particularly useful and common collecting strategy(Kozár & Miller, 2016). All parts of the deciduous fruit trees are examined. Underside of leaves, particularly in concealed areas near the veins good sites for the scales. III.3.2. Preservation and analysisThe collected specimens were preserved in alcohol and stored in refrigerator. Insects under Lepidoptera and caterpillar were preserved in dry paper. After that the specimens were identified up to its species by using different tools like and Insect Identification Key and specimens were observed by the help of mobile app cozy magnifier.