INVENTORY OF PYRETHROID IN NEPALCHAPTER I: Introduction1. Background1.1 PesticidesPesticides is an essential tool that helps to maintain the quality and quantity of crops production (Matthews, 2015). Pesticides are biocidal chemicals that are used for agricultural purposes, which includes insecticides, acaricides, nematocides, herbicides, rodenticides and fungicides (Matsumura, 2012) or Pesticide implies any substance, or blend of substances, or microorganisms such as viruses which is proposed for repulsing, wrecking or controlling any nuisance, including vectors of human or creature infection, aggravation bothers, undesirable types of plants or creatures causing hurt amid or something else meddling with the creation, preparing, capacity, transport or promoting of nourishment, farming items, wood and wood items or creature bolstering stuffs, or which might be controlled to creatures for the control of creepy crawlies, 8-legged creature or different nuisances in or on their bodies. The term incorporates substances proposed for use as creepy crawly or plant development controllers; defoliants; desiccants; specialists for setting, diminishing or keeping the untimely fall of natural product; and substances connected to crops either previously or on the other hand after collect to shield the ware from crumbling amid capacity and transport. The term likewise incorporates pesticide synergists and safeners, where they are necessary to the agreeable execution of the pesticide (FAO, 2014).The green revolution (1940), more fertilizer and pesticides were used in order to increase yields growing new varieties (Matthews, 2015). Later, the massive use of pesticides and its effect on the environment brought the revolution on pesticides especially from DDT by Rachel Clarkson from her book called Silent spring (1962).The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and was approved by the 28th World Health Assembly in 1997.S.N. WHO Class Hazards Pesticides1 I A Extremely hazardous Parathion, Phorate2 I B Highly hazardous Dichlorvos, quinalphhos3 II Moderately hazardous Endosulfan, carbofuran4 III Slightly hazardous carbaryl, malathion5 NH Unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use Synthetic pyrenoids(Source: WHO 2009; Shrestha, 2014)1.2 InsecticidesInsecticides is the medium of chemical that may be synthetic or biological in origin, in order to control target insects where control stands for elimination of insects or preventing it from destruction either by using mechanically (spray, slow-release diffusion etc.) or using insect resistance crop (Whit and Whitacre 2004). Unprecedented amounts of synthetic insecticides (fluvalinate, coumaphos) leads to declining in the health of bio-pollinator(honeybee) (Frazier et al., 2008).1.3 Pyrethroids Pyrethroids are regularly viewed as moderately safe bug sprays (David, 2010; Susan, 2010) made up of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Susan, 2010) mostly used for controlling indoor and agricultural pests (Hideo, 2010; Susan, 2010). Botanical insecticides, pyrethroids are accessible since 1940, but were rarely used as they deteriorate rapidly when exposed to sunlight (Elliott et al., 1978; Isman, 2006; Matthews, 2015).1.3.1 Pyrethroids world scenarioPyrethroids market is in increasing trend and also supporting the revenue and has the probability to increase in future all over the world (Sherry, 2019). Figure 1 demonstrates the overall yearly utilization of pyrethroid dynamic fixings from 1990 to 2016 and the information were gathered from FAOSTAT. Geographically Bangladesh, United Kingdom, Yemen, Germany and Madagascar are the countries that use pyrethroids in excessive amount (FAO, 2019). (Source: FAO, March 4,2019)1.3.2 Pyrethroids in context of NepalIn Nepal, there are 60 common name pesticide are found under which there are 1635 trade name pesticides. There are 160 institutions that are used to import the pesticides where 11777 are license holder retailer among them 11159 are trained personnel for safe storage and use (Sharma, 2018). Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Alpha cypermethrin, Beta cyfluthrin, Lambda cyhalothrin, Cyfluthrin, Bifenthrin are some synthetic Pyrethroids used in Nepal, where most of pyrethroid are used in combination with other insecticides especially organophosphate and the most common pyrethroid that are used in mixed form is Cypermethrin (PRMD). Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid that is most common in Nepal and used by 43.5 percent of Nepalese farmers where Lambdacyhalothrin is used by 2.5 percent of farmers (Sharma, 2018).1.4 Rationale of the studySynthetic Pyrethroid is a fourth-generation bio-insecticides that is extracted from Chrysanthemum flower (Susan, 2010) and have low toxic effect in mammals(Miyamoto, 1976). So, this study is carried out to give the information about the pyrethroid and the trend of use of it in Nepal as 90% of Nepalese depend upon agriculture sector (Palikhe, 2002) that solely contributes more than 30% of National GDP (ministry of agriculture, 2018). The trend of pyrethroid is analyzed by the help of Pesticide Registration and Management Section from Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development by extracting the formulation and import data of pyrethroid.1.5 Objective1.5.1 General objective• To study the trend of Pyrethroid in Nepal from 1997-2016.1.5.2 Specific objective• To analyze the yearly trend of Pyrethroid in Nepal.• To know the quantity of pyrethroid used in Nepal.1.6 Limitation of the study• This study is extracted from only Ministry of Agriculture.• This study does not include illegal import from open border area.• This study is only based on import of pyrethroid but not in consumption pattern and ratio.• This study is only focused up to 1997-2016CHAPTER II: Literature Review2.1 Pyrethroid issues:According to Wouters and van den Bercken, (1978) Pyrethroids also effect the nervous system as the other major classes of insecticides, locomotor instability (knockdown), hyperexcitation, tremors, and convulsions are some early symptom of pyrethroid poisoning. According to Vainio, (1999) Pesticides such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids and zinc mixes are in todays use, which have carcinogenic properties especially Gastric Cancer to human wellbeing.According to the CBS (2001),In Nepal the quantity of farmers utilizing chemical pesticides has been expanding, the extent of vegetable cultivators utilizing pesticides expanded from 7.1% in 1991/92 to 16.1% in 2001/2002.According to Palikhe, (2002) Pyrethroid is a latest pesticide in Nepal which is non-toxic and biodegradable and also does not have bio-accumulation in nature than that of DDT.Diwakar et.al., (2008); observed that in Nepal, Biopesticides were imported in littlest amount and their amounts are appeared after 2003 with the littlest venture.According to Sharma et.al., (2012)Synthetic pesticides were first time introduced in Nepal in 1952 when Paris green, gammaxene and nicotine sulfate were imported from the USA solely for malaria eradication. Around 49 pesticide importers are present today where about 7028 affiliates are prepared on safe utilization of pesticides and storage management, of which 6660 are authorized. Altogether 107 distinct pesticides (by normal name) have been enlisted under 650 various trade names.According to Sharma et.al., (2012) Unregistered and illegal items, outside deals, offers of restricted items, instances of tapping and reweighing, counterfeit labels control items utilizing fake marks, offers of terminated items with altered expiry dates are most common misuse cases of insecticides that have been accounted in Nepal.According to Adhikari, (2017)Nepal imports pesticides from India, China and different nations and those pesticides are utilized for vector control, outside parasites in creatures and pest management in farming. The pesticides that are either in produced, formulated, distribute, used or expert tools shall be registered under the pesticide Act and Pesticide regulation of Nepal.2.2 Policy, plan and Legal review2.2.1 ConstitutionChapter 3, article 36 of the constitution of Nepal 2072 (2015) has the provision of right relating to the food which describes as every citizen shall have right to be safe from the state of being danger of life from scarcity of food.2.2.2 Policy126.96.36.199 Agricultural policy 2061 (2004):It emphasizes competitiveness of agriculture sector encouraging farmers to go for commercial production. The long-term vision of the agriculture sector is to bring improvement in the living standards through sustainable agricultural development by transforming subsistence agricultural system into a commercial and competitive agricultural system. The policy aims at achieving high and sustainable economic growth through commercial agriculture system contributing to food security and poverty reduction. According to article 4.1, section 11, the supply of the main production inputs (improved livestock, fingerling, chemical fertilizer, seeds etc.) shall be guaranteed by regularly monitoring their imports, production and stocks. 188.8.131.52 Pesticide policy 2.2.3 ActsFood Act 2023(1966) and Food Rules 2027 (1970)Food Act 1966, is the primary legislation governing regulation of food safety in Nepal. The act and rules are continuously being amended as an attempt to comply with international standard and guidelines (Bajagai, 2012). Food Act 2023, of article 3 and 4, prohibition on production, sale or distribution of adulterated foodstuff or sub-standard foodstuff by lying or misleading. Likewise, article 5 defines about punishment that starts from one thousand Rupees to those who produces, sells, distributes, exports or imports the sub-standard foodstuffs. Article 8, further describe about examination of foodstuffs, whether it is adulterated or sub-standard. Article 13, said that the government bodies are responsible for enforcement of food safety related rules and regulations and describes their functions and responsibilities. 184.108.40.206 EPA 2053 (1997)According to EPA 2053 (1997) there is a general guidance to manage pesticides in different fields on crop production (nurseries, greenhouses, forestry) and is enforced into 19220.127.116.11.2 Pesticides act 2048 (1991)According to Pesticides Act, 2048 (1991) there is a provision on the import, production, sale and use of the pesticides are made in order to destroy fatal pests in different seeds, plants, trees, creatures, winged animals and so forth by late king Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, with the counsel and assent of the Council of Ministers, as per Article 129 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 2047 (1990).Water Resource Act, 2049 (1992)Article 19 of subsection 2, highlighted that no one shall pollute water resources by way of using or putting ay litter, industrial wastes, poison, chemical or toxicant to the effect that the pollution tolerance limit of the water resources as prescribed. Article 21 and 22 highlights about license and penalties respectively and article 24 talks about the power of Government of Nepal that applied to those who go against these act and rules.18.104.22.168 Plant Protection Act, 2064 (2007)According to Plant protection Act, 2064 (2007) there is a legal provision for preventing the introduction, establishment, prevalence and spread of pests while importing and exporting plants and plant products, promoting trade in plants and plant products by adopting appropriate measures for their effective control and therefore enacted by legislature of parliament. According to chapter 5, article 18 if quarantine pests in any area is found thereof have to inform to nearby inspector. And article 19 gives provision of quarantine affected area, if any spread is found. 22.214.171.124 Pesticide Management Act 2075 ()New pesticide management act 2075 has been approved by parliament and is in the process from upper house.2.2.4 Regulations126.96.36.199 EPR 2054 (1997):EPR, 1997 clause B of schedule 1, states that establishment of industries manufacturing chemical fertilizers (blending) and pesticides (blending) required proposal for Initial Environmental Examination (IEE). Schedule 2 define about the procedure. Schedule 7 (relating to sub-rule 1 of rule 16) states that pesticides and fertilizers company or industry require certificate of pollution control.188.8.131.52 Pesticide regulations 2050 (1993)According to Pesticide regulation, 2050 (1993) there is arrangement of Pesticide Management Board under the Act. The board encourages to the legislature in the definition of a national strategy with respect to pesticides to keep up co-appointment among private and government underway and conveyance of pesticides, manage and control the nature of pesticides, and plan standard of pesticides.2.2.5 Conventions184.108.40.206 FAO Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides (1985):International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides also referred as Code of Conduct was originally adopted in 1985 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Conference and revised in 2002, promotes sound pesticide management practices that minimize potential risks to human health and the environment. It provides framework for management of all pesticides, including those intended for use in agriculture and public health. Article 3 define about the Pesticide management in which, governments have the overall responsibility and should take the specific powers to regulate the distribution and use of pesticides in their countries. Article 4 define about testing of pesticides.220.127.116.11 Basel Convention (1989):The Basel Convention of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous wastes and their Disposal aimed at protecting human health and the environment against the adverse effects of the hazardous wastes. It also develops the criteria for the environmentally sound management wastes and minimization of hazardous wastes generation. Safe packaging, safe storage and disposal of obsolete pesticides are some of the activities done by Basel Convention.18.104.22.168 Rotterdam Convention on PIC (1998):Rotterdam Convention on PIC is a multilateral treaty aimed at promoting shared responsibilities and cooperative efforts among parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm. It also aimed at contributing the environmentally sound use of the hazardous chemicals, by facilitating the information exchange about their characteristics by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to parties. The convention creates legally binding obligations for the implementation of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedure. It also built voluntary PIC procedure, initiated by UNEP and FAO in 1989 and ceased on 24 February 2006. PIC procedure consists of an addition of chemical and also severely hazardous pesticide formulations that present a risk under conditions of use in developing countries or countries with economies in transition may also be proposed for inclusion to Annex III of the convention. Parties have nine months to prepare a response concerning the future import chemicals consisting of either a final decision or an interim response.22.214.171.124 Stockholm Convention on POPs (2001):It is an international treaty among countries aimed at protecting human health and the environment from POPs. The convention is the outcome of the commitment of the international community to protect human health and the environment from POPs. Once in force it sets a goal of ending the release and use of 12 most dangerous POPs. Parties are required to review and update their National Implementation Plan (NIP) in a manner specified by a decision of the COP. Among others the addition of chemicals to the Annexes in COP5 (2009), COP6 (2011) and COP7 (2013) is a factor that leads to the need to review and update the original NIP for a party. Thus, Parties to the convention will have to review, update and submit the NIPs within two years of the date of entry into force of the amendments to the COP (for chemicals added at COP5 in AUGUST 2012).126.96.36.199 SAICM (2006):The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), 2006 is a policy framework to promote chemical safety around the world. SAICM has as its overall objective the achievement of the sound management of chemicals throughout their lifecycle so that, by 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that minimize significant adverse impacts on human health and the environment. SAICM includes agricultural chemicals. It will have an impact on the agricultural sector, in particular on the use and management of pesticides and the implementation of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, the Rotterdam Convention, the Codex Alimentarius and other international undertakings.CHAPTER III: Materials and Methods3.1 MethodologyDifferent data, information and status of Pyrethroid use in Nepal was gathered from Pesticides Registration and Management Section of Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (Nepal Government). In this way acquired secondary data was examined.