Theory of Planned Behavior: Social Support and Diabetes Self-Management was proposed by (Icek Ajzen,1991). The benefit of this theory is to achieve good health outcomes and quality of life, it is crucial for older adults with diabetes and obesity to have adequate social support to sustain diabetes self-management practices. Also, it is providing a theoretically guided framework for nurse practitioners to develop tailored strategies that include psychosocial support for diabetes self-management.
That mean nurse practitioners should use theory-guided practice models that include family, friends, providers, and community support in order to improve and sustain diabetes self-management behaviors.• Review of relevant studies/publications/books all over the world: Example of the theory is the United State. Which is diabetes has become widespread in the United States and that associate with many reasons including obesity, lack of sports, work pressures, fast food, soft drinks, unhealthy lifestyle and accompanying diseases.
Also, sometime there is no social support to prevent the diseases. (Loretta, Pamela, Michael and Carla, 2016).• Review of relevant studies/publications/books and statistics in Gulf and UAE: The example of the GCC country is the UAE. Self- Management is one of the most essential elements of a healthy, disease-free life. Many diabetics in the UAE have a lack of knowledge about the quality of their disease and how to deal with it. Lack of awareness of the choice of food quality and lack of exercise may indicate a lack of understanding or presence of the patient ‘s consciousness which leads to a significant risk to the patient’ s life.
Self- Management depends on the ability of patients to self-care in their daily lives. ( Al-Maskari, F.& El-Sadig , M. , 2013). statistics of prevalence of diabetes among UAE people. The rate of diabetes in females is bigger than rate of diabetes in men, which is 8.5 percentage. on the other hand, males have low rate of diabetes which is 7.8 percentage. However, we can see there is not have too much gap between the percentage of females and males.
The total percentage of diabetes in that year was 8.0 percentage. Where the mortality rate reached 3%, according to (WHO,2016). The percentage of diabetes in Bahrain was 8.5% which is the percentage of males bigger than females which is 8.7%. On the other hand, the percentage of females was 8.2%. The total death rate was13%, according to (WHO,2016).• Concluding remarks: literature gap, importance of the study, assumptions for the study, link to hypotheses: we can see from the conceptual scheme that; healthy lifestyle is help people to have better life if they use physical activity and exercise every day.( Dr Craig, 2013). However, healthy food work to reduce the diseases by following the steps in their life such as eating well, reduce the sugar in their food and eat more vegetables and fruits instead of using canned food. Also, we can see people who have higher educated will be more awareness about their life rather than uneducated people.