Quantitative Studies: Ethological Study of Endemic Ant Species in Leyte: Hymenoptera and Formicidae

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CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONBackground of the Study We live in the community where thousands of people occupy the space of our country that we live in. They came in with a various ethnic groups with different ideologies, social interactions, lifestyle and economic crisis. But we are not aware of what is happening with our little friends living in the environment known as ants although they may be small but things are very complicated in their living, situation, mission and actions made daily with their life. Myrmecologists continue to study about the types of ant species to identify their locomotion, reproduction, protection, and other types of studies to help and guide the students on learning and knowing the functions to study our little friends on how they act in their environment and certain situations for their environment and for their colony.Many researchers have continued to research of how their parts and functions (Cammaerts,2016) stated that the noise is one of the environmental factors which can impact insects physiology and ethology. According to Cammaerts 2018, ants have eleven traits on living under normal conditions, then on these traits were: speed of locomotion, sinuosity of movement, orientation ability, audacity, tactile (pain) perception, brood caring, aggressiveness towards nest mates, and aggressiveness against aliens,escaping ability, cognition, and memory.German researcher Christian Rabeling was digging up ant colonies on a college campus on Brazil when he found something unexpected that certain ants appeared smaller and shinier and had wings. Rabeling soon realized that those strange ants belonged to a previously undocumented species, a parasite that was feeding off the nutrients of the already familiar ants. Schultz said, “for a species to split into two species without any geographic separation”, and “ That’s usually been rejected. It’s a very hard thing to prove.” Rabeling and Schutz proved that species don’t need geographic separation in order to evolve, “Evolution is largely about speciation, one species becoming two.” Schutz said, “So if you can understand the general rules about how speciation ocurs, you have made a big giant step forwards understanding evolution in general.” (Kurtner,2014)However, some species have been researched with supported experiments and theories by some scientists but it is not enough to provide information for the endemic species occurring in Tacloban City, Philippines. Body (locomotion, mobility, anatomy and communication). Process (lifestyle and defense mechanism). Interaction (community,colony and organization). These are common things missing with the study of endemic ants.Statement of the ProblemThe Philippines is home to many ant species, currently there are (300number example) of ant species here in the Philippines(put footnote here as of 2019 ) and every year there are an average number of new ant species being discovered. However despite knowing that they exist there is insufficient research being done towards the ants behavior in its natural habitat.Purpose of the Study The intent of this study is to determine the and know the behavior and habitat of the endemic species of ants in Tacloban City, Leyte Philippines Ants are everywhere, and they come in large number all over the world. And each of them have different behavior and different habitat. We are focusing on a specific species of ant which is the Anochetus leyticus and Diacamma leyteense which is present here in Leyte. Do this two little buddies share common similarities? And come with similar taste in terms of choosing the environment for a place of their habitat, or their own criteria of choosing the place to settle and build a colony. As the research will be conducted we will be able to unravel the possibilities of these two endemic ant species through this research. Significance of the StudyThis research can contribute to future ethological studies of endemic ants (species) in Leyte and may also inspire future researches on the behavior of ants that have been newly discovered in the Philippines. It contains valuable information for students who are studying the behavior of endemic ant species in the Philippines specifically in the region of Leyte. This research could aid researchers or scientist who are studying the behaviors of (various ant species) that can enlighten and discover new possibilities.Theory or Theoretical Perspective According to Kirsten,2014, Ethological Theory is referred to as the way by which living things react to different stimuli in the environment. The study of the behavior of living organisms can be sometimes problematic because it poses numerous practical and theoretical questions that can be answered from different perspectives. At present, the study subjects of ethological theory involve a wide variety of organisms ranging from the smallest insects to humans. However, for much of its history, ethological theories have been used to evaluate experimental field studies.Ainsworth attachment theory (devised by American Psychologist Mary Ainsworth) offers explanations on individual differences in attachment. As adults, when you are attached to some special one and you’re apart from that person, we can express our feelings through words however in infants and young children, the attachment can be observed by a technique created by Mary Ainsworth called SSC (Strange Situation Classification). Ethological Theory of Aggression, Lorenz explained that the potential for aggressive behavior is built-in (innate) within all animals, but the actual aggression would be shown by external stimuli or triggers.Fixed Action Patterns (FAP), Dutch biologist and ornithologist, Niko Tinbergen explained that all members of the same species exhibit the same identical behaviors (with no prior learning involved) no matter where they were raised. Examples: all dogs bark; all cats meow, etc.After the rise of the ethological theory, most people have generally accepted that behaviors can be heritable in some form. However, we have seen that it still remained as a controversial theory, partly because it was believed to be so vague in explaining the range of observed, inherited, and manifested biological structures and behaviors of living organisms.In addition to this, even supporters of the theory still hesitate at its seemingly non-progressive range of studies – a view that is seen as the biggest obstacle to the acceptance of its ideas.Research Questions1.What behavior do the ants exhibit when hunting or foraging for food?2.What is their response when there is an external threat or intruder invading the colony?3.What are the behaviors of ants in specific roles such as worker, soldier, nurse, etc.?Definition of Terms Ethology- Speciation- Anochetus Leyticus- Diachamma Leyteense-Delimitations The study is is descriptive in nature and focused on the ants ethology and delimits the effectiveness of their behavior. The chemical communication they utilize. And we will only studying with th Leyte region and also can be subjective. Limitations of the Study This study has potential limitations. The effectiveness of their behavior, the chemical communication they utilize. And also we will only be studying in the Leyte Region.Summary and Conclusions This research is devoted to the study of the objective behavior with regards to its surroundings and interactions with other animals in the ecosystem here in Leyte. Also this research focused on where the ants were collected, their habitat types, and density of the ants (which can be estimated for the two different species on the basis of observations in the field). CHAPTER IIReview of Related LiteratureThis chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depthsearch done by the researchers. This will also present the synthesis of the art, theoretical andconceptual framework to fully understand the research to be done and lastly the definition of terms for bettter comprehension.Related Studies In a study on the interspecific relationship between aphids and ants (Novogorodova, 2005). There is a significant difference regarding the behavior that the colony of ants undertook when presented with an aphid within its territory. It was shown that ant colonies with large protected territories attacked the adults and larvae of the predator. In other species of ant have either protected the aphids or simply ignored them. In Formica s. str. which has the highest level of social and territorial organization of the sampled ant species, provided the aphids with the most service and is the dominant species forming symbiotic relationships with aphids in the community. The findings show that some ant species have different levels of sophistication with regards to interspecific relationships A study conducted on the polycalic colonies of Formica exsecta nyl (Dobrzanska, 1973). Found that individuals freely walk over its various nests while performing its social functions. It is speculated that the services provided by one nest at some point ceases to function only for itself and forms a supra-nest attachment with the rest of the nests. This requires the inhibition of attachment from the nest of origin a characteristic trait of the genus Formica. The process of which is a form of colony integration wherein the social unit is extended from the nest into the whole of the colony. This shows that some species of ant may be able to form super colonies consisting of several nests of ants In a study on the foraging and building behavior of ants (Dobrzanski and Dobrzanska, 1975). Found that the initial lifting and moving patterns of behavior in ants specifically in T. caespitum is typically stereotypical and does not show any improvement as the ant gets older and has gained more experience. This reveals the congenital nature of ants. However, experience reveals itself when it is time to carry the object back into the nest, navigating throughout its maze of tunnels. It was also found that ants, when foraging, first moves into the general direction of its objective when reaching a certain distance from the nest, begins to use its olfactory senses find its way back to its previous path. This indicates that individuals of this species do not learn the exact way to and from the nest but instead have a memory for direction. The congenital character of these basic elements allows the existence of a social organization without a division of work and foraging areas Another study on the differences of exploitation and interference ability between two dominant ant species (Leonetti, 2019). Specifically, the Linepithema humile infamously known as the Argentine and and Tapinoma magnum. The study reveals that the behavior pattern of the Argentine ant is more aggressive compared to that of the Tapinoma magnum. The Argentine ant focuses its recruitment towards the control of the entire foraging area whilst the T. magnum were more food-oriented and focused its recruitment there. During interspecific interactions the Argentine ant fought aggressively and cooperatively while the T. magnum tried to avert the competitor through threatening gestures rather than physical aggression. The T. magnum colonies were continuously getting excluded from food sources and thus their surface activity were visibly reduced. This study suggests that some species of ants may have more favorable strategies based on their behavior as a colony.