There are quite few theories on how children develop and learn some

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There are quite few theories on how children develop and learn, some of them influence nurseries, preschools, schools, children settings in hospitals, children homes, hospice, care agencies working with children and so one. Jean Piaget (Cognitive Theory) describes successive stages on mental activity that occur during childhood. His theory influences our nurse’s current practice who are working with children in their homes. Piaget suggests, that by successfully encountering new experiences, the child adapts and progresses to the next stage. The child incorporates new ideas, skills and knowledge into familiar patterns of thought and action, when faced with a problem that’s new or too complex to fit into his existing pattern of thought, the child accommodates, drawing on past experiences that are closest to his current problem to solve it. Here the development occurs in four stages; the child can’t progress to a more advanced stage if he hasn’t accomplished the one preceding it. For example, Nurse XY can’t start to work on littles Freddy’s standing, when he didn’t accomplish to sit yet. Fours stages of cognitive development:• Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2) – during this stage, the child progresses from reflex activity through simple repetitive behaviours to imitative behaviours.• Preoperational stage (ages 2 to 7) – this stage is identified by egocentricity (the child can’t comprehend a point of few different than his own); it’s a time of magical thinking and increased ability to use symbols and language.• Concrete operational stage (ages 7 to11) – the child’s thought processes become more logical and coherent; he can use inductive reasoning to solve problems but still can’t think abstractly; he is less self-centred.• Formal operational thought stage (ages 12 to 15) – this stage is characterized by adaptability and flexibility: the adolescent can think abstractly, form logical conclusion from his observations, and establish and test hypotheses.Erik Erikson (Psychosocial theory) describes major personality changes that occur throughout an individual’s life. Passage from one stage to another depends on the use of skills acquired in the preceding stage; however. New situations may provide opportunities for learning to cope with deficits experienced in earlier stages. There are five childhood stages:• Trust versus mistrust (birth to age 1) – the child develops trust as the primary caregiver meets his needs• Autonomy versus shame and doubt (ages 1 to3) – the child learns to control his body functions and becomes increasingly independent, preferring to do things himself• Initiative versus guilt (ages 3to 6) – the child learns about the world through play and develops a sense of right and wrong • Industry versus inferiority (ages 6 to 12) – the child enjoys working on projects and with others and tend to follow rules; is very keen in competing with others and forming social relationships is very important for the child.• Identity versus role conclusion (age 12 to 18) – in this stage the body changes rapidly, the child is preoccupied of how he looks and how others view him, while trying to meet the expectations of his peers, the child also tries to establish his own identity.Working with children, it is important for our nurses to see and to understand their psychosocial development, as they only then are able to provide support, advise and help for the parents and the child. Sigmund Freud (Psychosexual theory) believes that a human mind (personality) consists of three major entities: the id (seeks immediate gratification