united nations and international politics

Abstract According to the promising words of charter in United Nations, it is the second largest international organisation According which is set to protect the people and to gain a larger freedom from world’s perspective. To save the generations from war and to have them build faith in the human rights and promote social progress. To establish conditions under which respect for the obligations arising from treaties and international law can be maintained. United Nations is not as popular as it used to be, but it did stop wars to happen. It has helped in maintaining good relations between countries/states.United Nations came into existence on 24 October 1945 during world war II their predecessor league of nations was created by treaty of Versailles in 1919 it was a peace document signed after the World War 1 by allied and associated powers and by Germany. Some of the functions of united nations is to maintain international peace and security, to maintain friendly relations, to achieve international cooperation, to be the centre of harmonizing the nations. (UN,1945). There are various organs in united nations including the general assembly, a security council, a economic social council , a trusteeship council and an international court but the ones that is important for taking the decision is the General Assembly and the security council .The security council has 5 countries that are there permanently ( US,UK, Russia ,China, France) apart from them the rest 15 countries who are elected on the basis of majority (2/3). (Eric Mintz, 2015). I would like to quote the line by the second UN secretory general “The UN was not created to take the mankind to heaven but to save humanity from hell”. Its not only about the United nations taking part in the international politics but also individuals, corporation governments non-governmental organizations and international organizations. Briefly talking about UN general assembly which exercises the duties of the supervision, primary roles of the UN include discussions and suggestions but for sure it cannot make the decision on the account of other state. Being a peace keeping organisation it doesn’t want to intervene in the state matters under the account of charter of UN. Other function also includes the selection of members on Economic and social council and the non-permanent members of the other council like security council. So, the assembly takes place every year and each year from the 5 regional states there is a president selected for term of 1 year. They arise international issues and there is a healthy debate where any member can voluntarily participate. There are six main committees under the general assembly which includes the Disarmament and International Security, Economic and Financial, Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural, Special Political and Decolonization, Administrative and Budgetary, and Legal. (Karen Mingst, 2019). General Assembly has 193 member states participating in it. Sitting arrangement goes where Ghana sits in the first place and rest countries sits alphabetically starting from a to z according in the 74th session which is of 2019-20. United nations are not taking step towards some international issues including decolonization, AIDS, some disease in Africa. Where there is politics there would be conflict, so the UN has larger conflicts like disagreement on human rights cold wars and Israel conflict. The more the better in the same way when there is a lot of a wide variety of group it means diversity in the discussion result by voting bloc in 1960’s. General Assembly is one of the six organs of the united nations but for the international politics it is an important factor as it is universe’s voice.Security Council is the authority which is there for peace and security. It has 15 members in total in which 5 are permanent are there whereas the rest 10 are elected based on voting. Each of the five countries have the power from which is called the veto power. Veto power is basically a special power granted to the five important members in the security council. According to an amendment there were changes being made when its member increased to 15 The Republic of China was replaced by Republic of China Taiwan in 1971 and Soviet Union by Russia. India and Japan also applied for the permanent membership. The voting on any disputes that shows up is done firstly based on members holding the veto power and secondly on how the non-permanent members 10 countries select it should be 9/10 to win the dispute. Any one of the 5 countries can remain quiet if they want to. If there is a threat to the country’s peace even if its not the member security council initially sends the peace keeping forces and even after that they feel like the peace is breached they send the team and then apply diplomatic rules under section 39 which states that if they sense a threat , aggression or peace violation they can send their team to take over the situation. The work management is done by the military staff peacekeeping forces committees, and an International Tribunals Committee. International politics doesn’t have any specific rules to be followed because there is no central authority which means the people must follow the rules of the state they belong to. The state signs a treaty with ICJ (International court of justice) which in turn settle disputes between the judges. There are in total 15 judges but ICJ cannot summon other state to show up. As told the world as whole doesn’t have a government but it does have a global governance which consists of the states, international governmental and non-governmental organizations. (press, 1945) International Politics is a word where the politics like within a subpart or the states not the main organization. The state should have the control over the parts and how they handle the power within their state. For example a relation of doctor and nurse in hospital and in casual dinner, while in the hospital the doctors are the main focus who gives the instruction to the nurses so here it is seen that the central authority or the power lies with the doctor who is giving the order whereas if they all meet in the party the doctor no longer holds the authority over nurses as he did in the hospital by giving them orders. In the same way the international system works as the system gets vast the power shifts from 1 state to power being divided to each state equally. All the sovereign states have the international system which means important international organization and how the power is distributed between them. (Eric Mintz, 2015) .To study the international politics there is a concept known as the realism which in itself includes the concept of no central authority, international system and the division of power. There are various types of realism that came forward by different types of scholars or people with the degree of political science, but the focus is the newest realism also known as the Peace of Westphalia by Münster and Osnabrück signed in 1648 (Eric Mintz, 2015). It was created so that the religion wars in Europe could come to an end since the reform in 1517. the fact it is still alive today because it identified the importance of the state sovereignty where it depends on how much power the state has in international system.This focus on the power further introduces the concept of the different types of international systems unipolar, bipolar, multipolarity (Karen Mingst, 2019). The systems can be explained by an example which means that the unipolar is alpha which means the supreme and rest are the subordinates to it. After the discussing why United Nations was created and its important organ, we are about to discuss its importance in international politics in detail. The international organization

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