AbstractField evaluation of Neem based pesticides “ Entomax and Neem Azal

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AbstractField evaluation of Neem based pesticides “ Entomax and Neem Azal T/S” was carried out against the jasmine moth Palpita unionalis, the olive fruit fly , Bactrocera oleae (larval stage) and Zeuzera pyrina larvae infesting olive trees in new reclaimed area at Wadi El-Natrun ( El-Behera governorate ) during 2017 season . The toxic and repellent effects of Entomax and Neem Azal T/S against the previous insects were compared with the recommended pesticide (Cidial). Four sprayings for four weeks were conducted, respectively. The recommended rate application was 3.0, 1.0 and 1.5 ml/liter for Entomax, Neem Azal T/S and Cidial, respectively.The results showed that Entomax was high effective than Neem Azal T/S whereas Entomax caused 93.2% mortality and 70.64% repellent for Bactrocera oleae & 97.32% mortality and 85.57% repellent for Palpita unionalis& 86.7% mortality and 81.4 repellent for Zeuzera pyrina larvae. While Neem Azal T/S achieved 90.9% mortality & 64.24% repellent for Bactrocera oleae and 96.37% mortality & 80.57% repellent for Palpita unionalis& 83.8% mortality and 79.2 repellent for Zeuzera pyrina larvae. Also, cidial compound achieved 96.47% mortality & 78.14% repellent for Bactrocera oleae and 96.75% mortality & 78.72 % repellent for Palpita unionalis& 82.3% mortality and 62.3 repellent for Zeuzera pyrina larvae. Entomax was the highest effect followed by Neem Azal T/S and cidial was the least effective against Zeuzera pyrina larvae .The results showed that Entomax and Neem Azal T/S could be use in the integrated pest management for the olive trees pests.Key Words: Palpita unionalis, Bactrocera oleae, Zeuzera pyrina, the olive trees, Entomax, Neem Azal T/S, Cidial.IntroductionIn recent year, the jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin and the leopard moth Zeuzera pyrina L. have become three of the key pests in commercial olive groves in Egypt. They are present throughout the Mediterranean region, Asia Minor and North Africa (Balashowsky, 1972; Hegazi et al., 2007; Ghoneim, 2015 ; Hamadah et al.,2017 ). Palpita unionalis larvae attack several plant species belonging to Oleaceae (Ligustrum vulgare, Jasminum officinale, Olea europaea, Philirea media, Fraxinus) and Arbutus unedo (Ericacae). Larvae attack leaves, shoots and fruits of the olive tree in young plantations, feeding on leaves where damage can reach up to 90% of the leaf area, thereby seriously affecting the development of the plant shoots. High infestations in late summer and autumn during ripening may also reduce fruit yield by 30% (Arambourg, 1986; Lόpez -Villalta, 1999). Also premature fruit fall can result from larvae feeding on the stem of developing fruits. Infested fruit may dry out or some may remain on the tree and drop down later (Hegazi et al., 2007). Also, the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most serious insect pest of the cultivated olive (Olea europea L.) fruits in the world (Economopoulos, 2002) and affects the olive tree cultivation causing serious qualitative and quantitative consequences with economic impacts and monetary losses (Neuenschwander and Michelakis, 1979; Economopoulos et al., 1986). Without treatment and under optimum climate conditions for the development of the olive fruit fly, the insect is able to infest more than 90% of olives in untreated orchards (Athar, 2005; Kapatos and Fletcher, 1984). Olive fruit flies survive best in more humid climates. Also, they infest fruits in olive trees that are grown in dry regions. According to Kapatos and Fletcher (1986) the olive fruit fly survives best in cooler coastal climate, but is also found in hot, dry regions. The optimum temperature for the insect development is between 20.0 and 30.0 ºC. In practice, the air temperature during the spraying process must be between 12.0 and 28.0 ºC and the wind speed must be less than 28.8 km/h. High wind speed inhibits the insect flights. Because of the olive fruit flies are not fed by the sprayed solution and survive. However, another insect pest, the leopard moth Zeuzera pyrina L. (ZP) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) has become of increasing impact in North Africa in the last few decades (Katsoyannos, 1992). Little is known of its ecology in this new context. The larvae of ZP are cryptic woodborers affecting a wide variety of trees and shrubs, comprising over 150 plant species from 20 genera (Carter, 1984; Castellari, 1986; Kutinkova et al.,2006). Newly-established olive orchards suffer the greatest damage, including the death of young trees. In nurseries, the damage can be particularly extensive (Castellari, 1986). In Egypt, damage caused by ZP led to uprooting of olive groves by growers (Hegazi et al.,2016). The damage caused by the larval tunnels in structurally critical wood can be extremely serious to a tree already bearing a fruit load; it causes ordinary branches to break under a medium load, whereas it may cause complete death of young trees with a heavy load as a result of damage to the major branches and trunk.The control of P. unionalis, B. oleae and Z. pyrina remains almost exclusively based on insecticides, particularly organophosphates (OPs) (Roessler, 1989). However, the extensive use of insecticides and off-target sprays lead to environmental and public health problems. It is harmful and irritating to humans, very toxic to bees (Apis mellifera L.), harmful to animals, birds and aquatic organisms. For these reasons, the researchers trend to use of the botanical insecticides such as neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) has emerged as an excellent alternative to synthetic insecticides for the management of insect pests. Neem formulations were less harmful to animals, birds, aquatic organisms, natural enemies and environment. Also, they were not leading to quality reduction of olive oil and table olives and producing negative consequences to the environment, and to humans (Schmutterer &Singh, 2002; Abd El-Salam et al., 2012).This study focused to the minimization of the pesticide applied and to the reduction of the jasmine moth olive fruit fly and the leopard moth populations by use the botanical insecticides such as Entomax and Neem azal T/S formulations in comparison with organophosphorus compound such as Cidial.Material and methodsFormulations used Neem based pesticide was used in two commercial formulations as follows: Entomax contained 0.15% azadirachtin as active ingredient and kindly obtained from Holland Farming, a member of the Marbax Group of companies B.V. Recommended rate is 300 ml / 100 liters of water. Neem azal T/S contained 1.0 % azadirachtin as active ingredient and kindly obtained from Trifolio M GmbH, Lahnau, Germany. Recommended rate is 100 ml / 100 liters of water. Cidial (50% EC.) was organophosphorus formulation contained phenthoate S-α- ethoxy carbonyl benzyl O, O- dimethyl phosphorodithioate. Recommended rate is 150 ml / 100 liters of water.Field EvaluationThe present study was carried out in a new reclaimed area of 15 feddan cultivated with olive trees (Olea europaea L.), newly fruitful, variety Toffahi 5 years old. The farm located at Wadi El-Natrun, Behera Governorate (A farm 120 Km north Cairo). The farm was highly infested with the jasmine moth Palpita unionalis the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae and the leopard moth in 2017 season. The farm divided four blocks, 3 blocks selected for treatment by the recommended rate for 3 formulations and selection randomly 10 olive trees for treated with the previous formulations. Each block was specialized for one treatment. The fourth block was to specialize without treatment (water alone). 10 leaves, 10 branches (ca.30 cm long) and 25 olive fruits other /tree (began to ripen) selected randomly and taken in paper bags for inspection in the laboratory by binocular microscope.Number of leaves, branches and fruits infested and live larvae for the jasmine moth , the leopard moth and the olive fly were counted. Four applications were carried out during 4 weeks to start July 7th and final July 28th. Samples were taken before spraying and after week from spraying. The percentage reduction in number of live larvae of B. oleae for the olive fruits , P. unionalis in leaves and Z. pyrina in branches were calculated with Henderson &Tilton 1955 formula. Also, the repellent effect was calculated by Lundgren 1975 formula as follows:Whereas, C and T means number of infested olive fruits or leaves in control and treatment, respectively. Spray applications carried out by motor knapsack sprayer (15 L capacity, Japan manufacture). Each treatment repeated 10 times (one tree/replicate). Statistical analysis The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparisons were made based on Duncan’s new multiple range test (computer program Microstat version 2.5, 1991). Results & Discussion I-Toxic and repellent effect of neem and cidial formulations against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.Data obtained in table (1) indicated that Entomax treatment was more efficiency than neem azal T/S. However , it was decreased the mean number of alive larvae from 20.0 to 5.3/tree after the 1st spray by week ,while in comparison with untreated trees that recorded 24.9 alive larvae/ tree before spray increased 26.8 alive larvae/tree after week from the firstly spray. With repeated the weekly sprayings, Entomax achieved to reduce in the mean number of live larvae reached 100% reduction after the fourth spraying. Entomax could be achieving 93.2% reduction after fourth sprayings. Also, the results showed that neem azal T/S formulation was promised but it was lower efficacy than Entomax. Neem azal T/S achieved 90.9% reduction in the mean number of live larvae after the fourth sprayings.The data obtained in table (1) showed that cidial formulation was the most efficiency followed by Entomax and neem azal T/S. Cidial was caused 96.47% reduce in the mean number of live larvae and 78.14% repellent after the fourth sprayings . However, the present aim of the work is minimizing the use of traditional chemicals