Potential of Robotics in Indian Healthcare Industry – A studyA healthy nation

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Potential of Robotics in Indian Healthcare Industry – A studyA healthy nation they say is a wealthy nation. Healthcare is important to the society because COBOTS – A HELPING HAND IN THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRYRobotic medical assistants monitor patients’ vital statistics and alert nurses when there is a need for human presence, allowing a nurse to monitor multiple patients simultaneously. These assistants also automatically enter information into the patient electronic health record. Robotic carts may be seen moving through hospital corridors carrying supplies. Robots have also started assisting surgeons, which allow the surgeons greater precision and a higher success rate with their operations. These robots also undertake simple tasks like drawing blood, check patients’ vital signs and conditions, and take care of the patients’ hygiene if needed. Robots also prepare and dispense medications in pharmacological labs.1. Medical device packaging sterilization is vital for devices which will come into contact with people. When humans perform such packaging tasks, there is a high risk of contamination which would jeopardize the integrity of the products.Cobots are a great way to reduce – or even eliminate – this contamination risk. They can perform those packaging tasks which require a completely sterile environment. 2. Lab automation: A large number of tests are performed in medical labs throughout the world. One lab in Copenhagen University Hospital was inundated with blood samples and needed to perform 3,000 tests per day. Two robots were added to their process which allowed them to deliver 90% of the results of tests within an hour.1. Telepresence Physicians use robots to help them examine and treat patients in rural or remote locations, giving them a “telepresence” in the room. 2. Surgical Assistants These remote-controlled robots assist surgeons with performing operations, typically minimally invasive procedures. Benefits of Robotic Surgery: • Shorter hospitalization.• Reduced pain and discomfort.• Faster recovery time and return to normal activities.• Smaller incisions, resulting in reduced risk of infection.• Reduced blood loss and transfusions.• Minimal scarring. 3 Rehabilitation Robots These play a crucial role in the recovery of people with disabilities, including improved mobility, strength, coordination, and quality of life. These robots can be programmed to adapt to the condition of each patient as they recover from strokes, traumatic brain or spinal cord injuries, or neurobehavioral or neuromuscular diseases such as multiple sclerosis. 4. Medical Transportation Robots Supplies, medications, and meals are delivered to patients and staff by these robots, thereby optimizing communication between doctors, hospital staff members, and patients. 5. Sanitation and Disinfection Robots With the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and outbreaks of deadly infections like Ebola, more healthcare facilities are using robots to clean and disinfect surfaces. 6. Robotic Prescription Dispensing Systems The biggest advantages of robots are speed and accuracy, two features that are very important to pharmacies. “Automated dispensing systems have advanced to the point where robots can now handle powder, liquids, and highly viscous materials, with much higher speed and accuracy.7. Robotic monitoring of patient Data: Robots can be used in monitoring of patients database and data collection for emergency cases like heart failure and diabetes and then relay such data to a human nurse or doctor for action to be taken.According to a recent report by Credence Research, the global medical robotics market is valued at $7.24 billion in 2015 and is expected to grow to $20 billion by 2023. A key driver for this growth is demand for using robots in minimally invasive surgeries, especially for neurologic, orthopedic, and laparoscopic procedures.As a result, the healthcare industry has the potential to save billions of dollars in coming years. Improves healthcare qualitySaves costs in human laborThe application of RPA in the healthcare industry is rapidly growing, offering many benefits to healthcare professionals and patients.Healthcare robotics is an exciting, emerging area that can benefit all stakeholders across the healthcare industry. Robotics in healthcare services have the potential to be a remarkable game changer in the healthcare industry.Health care is one of India’s most rapidly expanding sectors both in terms of revenue and employment.Challenges of inadequate facilities, infrastructure, coverage, access, and quality are predominant in the healthcare system. There is a persistent shortage of human resources in health in India – 0.7 doctors available per 1000 population as compared to the WHO recommended 1:1000 ratio. India has the world’s second-largest population, rising from 760 million in 1985 to an estimated 1.3 billion in 2015. The existing healthcare infrastructure is just not enough to meet the needs of the population. In 2015, there was one government hospital bed for every 1,833 people compared with 2,336 persons a decade earlier. However, as Lancet points out, this has been inequitably distributed. For instance, there is one government hospital bed for every 614 people in Goa compared with one every 8,789 people in Bihar.The central and state governments do offer universal healthcare services and free treatment and essential drugs at government hospitals. However, the hospitals are understaffed and under-financed, forcing patients to visit private medical practitioners and hospitals.Healthcare delivery in India is going through a change at all its stages — prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. No single entity in the healthcare sector can work in isolation. The evolution of the sector calls for involvement from all stakeholders and the use of innovation to bridge intent and execution. 2) Unequally distributed skilled human resourcesThere aren’t enough skilled healthcare professionals in India despite recent increases in MBBS programmes and nursing courses. In the World Health Organisation’s ranking of health systems of countries, India is ranked at 112, way below countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, Iran and Iraq. World Bank predicts a shortage of 80.2 million workers by 2030 globally and India will need 2 million doctors and 6 million nurses by that time.India is the seventh-largest country by area as well as world’s seventh-largest economy.As per Census 2011, the total population of India is 1210.8 million with a decadal growth rate of 17.7 per cent. While 31.14 per cent of the population lives in urban areas, the rest lives in rural areas.There is a huge disparity in the availability of healthcare resources in India. The rural- urban divide is high with regard to access to healthcare. Health Finance: The cost of treatment has been on rise in India and it has led to inequity in access to health care services. India spends only 1.02% of its GDP (2015-16) as public expenditure on health. Per capita public expenditure on health in nominal terms has gone up from Rs 621 in 2009-10 to Rs 1112 in 2015-16. The Centre: State share in total public expenditure on health was 31:69 in 2015-16. Medical education infrastructure in the country has shown rapid growth during the last 20 years. The country has 476 medical colleges, 313 Colleges for BDS courses and 249 colleges which conduct MDS courses. There has been a total admission of 52,646 in 476 Medical Colleges & 27060 in BDS and 6233 in MDS during 2017-18.There are 3215 Institutions for General Nurse Midwives with admission capacity of 129,926 and 777 colleges for Pharmacy (Diploma) with an intake capacity of 46,795 as on 31st October, 2017. There are 23,582 government hospitals having 710,761 beds in the country. 19,810 hospitals are in rural area with 279,588 beds and 3,772 hospitals are in urban area with 431,173 beds. 70% of population of India lives in rural area and to cater their need there are 156,231 Sub Centres, 25,650 Primary Health Centres and 5,624 Community Health Centres in India as on 31st March, 2017. Universal access to health care is a well-articulated goal for both global institutions and national governments. India’s National Health Policy, 2017 envisions the goal of attaining highest possible level of health and well-being for all at for all ages through a preventive and promotive health care orientation in all developmental policies, and universal access to good quality health care services without financial hardship to the citizens. Manpower for health services has been described as the “heart of the health system in any country”. It is one of the most important aspects of healthcare systems and a critical component of health policies. In India, there is no reliable source giving the number of the members of the health workforce as more than half of the healthcare professionals work in the unorganized private sector. Key components of the healthcare market in India are hospitals (Government and Private), pharmaceuticals, diagnostics (imaging and pathology), medical equipment and supplies, medical insurance and telemedicine.100% FDI is allowed under the automatic route for greenfield projects. For investments in brownfield projects, up to 100% FDI is permitted under the government route.A healthy population can undoubtedly contribute to economic growth and development of a country. India has made considerable progress in many health indicators. Life expectancy at birth has increased, infant mortality and crude death rates have been greatly reduced, diseases such as small pox, polio and guinea worm have been eradicated, and leprosy has been nearly eliminated. The country strives towards achieving Universal Health Coverage. ‘NHP Scheme’ – World’s largest government-funded healthcare programmeUnequal access, poor quality and rising costs are three key challenges faced by the healthcare industry. Healthcare industry in India:Healthcare comprises hospitals, medical devices, clinical trials, outsourcing, telemedicine, medical tourism, health insurance and medical equipment. The Indian healthcare sector is growing at a brisk pace due to its strengthening coverage, services and increasing expenditure by the public as well private players. Thus healthcare has become one of the key sectors in terms of revenue and employment in India.Indian healthcare delivery system is broadly categorised into two components: public and private. Public delivery system consists of basic healthcare facilities in the form of primary healthcare centres (PHCs) in rural areas, secondary and tertiary healthcare institutions in key towns and cities. Private sector primarily caters to secondary, tertiary and quaternary care.Challenges in Healthcare SectorThe skilled health workforce in India does not meet the minimum threshold of 22.8 skilled workers per 10,000 population recommended by the World Health OrganisationDespite the health sector employing five million workers in India it continues to have low density of health professionals with figures for the country being lower than those of Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, United Kingdom and Brazil, according to a World Health Organisation database. This workforce statistic has put the country into the “critical shortage of healthcare providers” category. Robotics In The Indian Medical SectorRobotics assistants are being used across private and public hospitals throughout the country.D eploying a robotic surgical assistant in India dates back to 1998, when a team of doctors from Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre (EHIRC) used a robotic arm to fix a hole in the patient’s heart. The impact of surgical robotics in India is increasing as the number of facilities performing robotic surgeries continues to grow.The first robot-assisted surgical procedure in India took place at a Delhi hospital in 2002. Robotic health care has a great potential in the healthcare industry in India. References: Gopal K M. Strategies for ensuring quality health care in India: Experiences from the field.Indian J Community Med 2019;44:1-3 ( http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2019/44/1/1/253921)https://www.firstpost.com/india/world-health-day-2019-challenges-opportunities-in-indias-81b-healthcare-industry-3544745.htmlåhttps://www.livemint.com/Opinion/qXD81719wXXDQVpGyyARrO/Seven-charåts-that-show-why-Indias-healthcare-system-needs-a.htmlhttps://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/by-2030-india-will-need-2-m-doctors-6-m-nurses/article22970727.eceKujat, Lorelei. “How Have Robotics Impacted Healthcare?.”” The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research 12 (2010): 6-8. (http://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/ur/vol12/iss1/4)Qureshi MO