Psychological Perspectives

Table of Contents

Psychological PerspectivesBehaviourist approachP1This approach implies that we learn all human behaviour through our environment, which is everything around us and that when we’re born our mind is “tabula rasa” (a blank state) and that the second you leave the womb you start learning. Behaviourists are only interested in observable stimulus-response behaviour and says that all behaviour is learned by interacting with the environment.Operant Conditioning is learning through rewards from positive behaviour and punishment for negative behaviour, An individual makes a link between a behaviour and an effect of something. Skinner’s rats is a way of learning from consequences.He investigated operant conditioning by carrying out experiments using rats by putting them in a box, Skinner noticed three different types of reinforcement from this: these are positive reinforcement which is that if behaviour leads to rewards it’s likely to become a regular thing (that by pressing the lever the rats get food), negative reinforcement which is that if behaviour reduces discomfort it’s likely to be repeated (getting an electric shock which is stopped by pressing the lever) and finally punishment which is that if a certain behaviour leads to punishment it’s not likely to be repeated (getting an electric shock from pressing the lever). Classical conditioning is learning through association which was discovered by Pavlov who was a russian psychologist, Classical conditioning is putting two stimuli together which produces a brand new learnt response in either an animal or human. The way he did this was through a study called Pavlov’s dogs: the study began with Pavlov showing the bowl of dog food which triggered an unconditioned response. Pavlov’s dogs started associating his lab assistant with food which created a learned and conditioned response. Pavlov then used a bell as a neutral stimulus and when he gave the dog food he rang the bell and eventually they associated the bell with food. Unconditioned stimulus —— Unconditioned Response (Food) (Salvation) Unconditioned stimulus + Neutral stimulus ==== Unconditioned Response (Food) (Bell) (Salvation) Conditioned stimulus ——- Conditioned Response (Bell) (Salvation) Systematic Destination is a type of behavioural therapy which is based on classical conditioning, it’s aim is to remove a phobia like spiders so that the person doesn’t suffer from this phobia anymore. Unconditioned stimulus——–Unconditioned response (Baby) (Fear)Neutral stimulus —————No response (balloon) (giggling) Unconditioned stimulus + Neutral stimulus =====Unconditioned response (Baby) (Balloon) (Fear) Conditioned Stimulus ———— Conditioned Response (Balloon) (Fear)How is this approach useful for a nurse?This approach is useful for a nurse because it encourages people to learn new information to change their attitudes and responses and therefore helps them get rid of any phobias or negative behaviors they have developed from previous experiences. How is this approach useful for a social worker? This approach is useful for a social worker because social work is focused on changing behavior that is observable and changeable and this approach puts the person at a very deep sense of relaxation which replaces anxiety and fear. M1 Social learning approachP1Albert Bandura created this approach which agrees with the behaviourist learning theory and it’s ideas of classical and operant conditioning, Bandura adds two ideas that meditating processes occur between stimuli & responses, also behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning implying that children learn through watching and copying the people around them. This is shown through Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment where the aim of the study is to see if social behaviour can be picked up by watching and copying behaviour. Role models are very important to children because they look up to them and inspire to be just like them so they start to copy what they do this could either be good or bad actions. Role models can differ from a family member to a celebrity. A good celebrity role model would be somebody like Beyonce who sings about girl power and how being a female doesn’t make you any different from a man and that being a woman isn’t anything to be ashamed about because it doesn’t make you weaker or inferior to anybody. The Bobo doll experiment is a controlled experiment which investigates social behaviours. The children were split into three groups with 24 in each. One group was shown a video of a woman hitting the Bobo doll in a distinctive manner and then the children were put in a room one by one so Bandura could see what the children would do. They all started playing with the toys which they were told that the experimenter’s best toys and were reserved for them. All the children were put through mild aggression arousal and the toys were a collection of non-aggressive and aggressive ones. The children who watched the women being aggressive were more aggressive than the others. The results found that the girls in the aggressive model showed more physical aggression if the model was male but more verbal aggression if the model was female. The boys were found to copy same-sex models then girls and they initiated more physical agression then girls. The self-fulfilling prophecy is the idea that you live up to how another person presumes you’re going to behave which leads to you actually behave like their assumption. An example of this is that if your sister wasn’t the brightest your teachers might assume that your the same even though your exceptionally clever but because they assumed you to be just like her so you start to mess about in lessons and fall behind on work. How is this approach useful for a nurse?This approach is useful for a nurse because they can get the child to watch somebody get an injection to show them there’s nothing to be scared of and that it’s not harmful. How is this approach useful for a social worker?This approach is useful for a nurse because they can use a positive role model to get a child to change their negative behavior to positive because they want to be like that certain role model meaning that the child will want to get rewards like the other children. M1Cognitive approachP1Piaget created this approach which shows how a child creates a mental model of the world because he didn’t believe that being clever is a fixed trait. He considered cognitive development as something that comes from biological maturation and interaction with the environment. Piaget noted that children made mistakes at the same age and it didn’t matter how clever they were considered to be. He concluded that cognition developed through 4 different stages: The Sensorimotor stage, The preoperational stage, The Concrete Operational stage and The Formal Operational stage. The sensorimotor stage:Begins from birth until 2 years old, during this time children build an understanding of the world through trial and error, using their senses and actions to become more adapted to the world.They also utilise the skills and abilities that they’re born with e.g sucking, listening, breathing and grasping. This stage can be broken down into 6 sub-stages which are simple reflexes which is where the neonate responds to stimulation with innate reflex actions, primary circular reactions which is where the baby will repeat actions that bring pleasure on their body, secondary circular reactions this is where babies repeat pleasurable actions that involves objects, coordinating secondary schemes is where babies show signs of the ability to use their knowledge to reach a goal, tertiary circular reactions is when babies develop intentional adaptations to certain situations a child who discovered an object by taking it apart is attempting to put it together, symbolic thought is the transition to pre-operational stage of cognitive development babies can now form mental images of objects. The preoperational stage: Starts at Age 2 till 7 years old, children think at a symbolic level but aren’t using cognitive operations yet as the child can’t use logic or combine/separate ideas, there are three different stages the first one is the centration stage which is where children can only focus on one aspect of a situation at a time, they have an ability to decenter, children also have difficulty thinking about more than one thing at a time. The second stage is egocentrism which is the inability to see another person’s point of view and the child’s thoughts and communication is about themselves, this stage is a child’s blockage to see a situation from somebody else’s point of view this is because they assume that others see,hear and feel the same as they do. The last stage is play this is where children engage in something called parallel play they often play in the same room as other children but they play next to them instead of with them, this is because each child is absorbed in their own personal world and they haven’t grasped social function of language or rules. Concrete operational Starts at age 7 and continues until age 11, begins around middle childhood this is where children become organised and have a more rational way of thinking, children also become a lot more logical finding reasons and answers to their own questions, however they can only use logical thought to physical objects, children can solve problems logically but they can’t think abstractly or hypothetically, they can also understand that something stays the same in amount even if it’s appearance changes. Children are more likely to observe situations first and they understand people have their own thoughts. The formal operational stage: Begins at 12 and continues into adulthood, once you enter this stage you start gaining the ability to think in an abstract manner and manipulate ideas in your head without any dependency on concrete manipulation. Individuals can think creatively, use abstract reasoning, do mathematical calculations and imagine the outcome of particular actions, Individuals will also access problems in a systematic and organised manner rather than trial and error. George Kelly’s personal construct implies that people develop personal ideas about how the world works and we use these ideas to make sense of observations and experiences, the world we live in is the same for everyone but how we experience things is different for each individual. Kelly believed that every person was like a scientist and we want to understand the world around us making predictions about what will happen next and to create reasons to explain situations. Positive constructions is things like how you view certain situations like losing your job you could view this positively by saying to yourself that you were too good for that job anyways but a negative construct would be viewing the situation negatively by saying that your never going to find a job again. How is this approach useful for a nurse?This approach is useful for a nurse because she can use Piaget’s stages of development to help a depressed patient and understand why they are depressed like viewing life through a negative construct rather than a positive one. How is this approach useful for a social worker?This approach is useful for a social worker because it helps them monitor a child’s development and to notice if a child has a mental illness issue and how to help them like viewing life through a positive construct rather than a negative one. M1Humanistic approach:P1This approach focuses on the whole person and their unique qualities they have, we all have free will to choose how to behave and that all people are good and focused on making the world and themselves better. Carl Rogers believed that humans had one motive which was to fulfil their potential through two versions of themselves, Their actual self which is who they are currently and their ideal self which is who they want to be. Which leads them to have either Congruence which is that your ideal and actual self are the same or Incongruence which is that your ideal and actual self are different. He identified 5 characteristics of the fully functioning person. These are; Open to experience which is that positive and negative emotions are accepted, Existential Living which is being able to live and appreciate the present and not worry about the past or future, Trust feelings which is that we should trust ourselves and make the right choices, Creativity which is to take risks and get out of your comfort zone and Fulfilled life which is being happy and satisfied with life. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has 5 different stages these are called Physiological needs which are vital for a humans survival so things like food, water, shelter and sleep if these needs aren’t met then the human body can’t function properly, The next is Safety needs which are things like security, sabibilty and freedom from fear if these needs aren’t met then the human can’t live any kind of life because they will be scared of what could happen to them. Then it’s Love and belongingness needs which is the human need for social and feelings of belonging involves things like family, friendships, intimacy and acceptance without this human would feel very self-conscious about themselves thinking that there’s something wrong with them. The next is Esteem needs this is things like estem for your own like dignity, independence and achievements and the other is the desire for a reputation or respect from others. The final one is Self-actualization needs which is realizing personal potential with things like self-fulfilment, personal growth and experiences. How is this approach useful for a nurse?This approach is useful for a nurse through unconditional positive regard which gives the patient acceptance in their being. It also lets them become completely accepting to others. It helps the patient feel they can express their emotions without fearing rejection and patients need to feel valued at all times. How is this approach useful for a social worker?This approach is useful for a social worker because it helps a child who has a low opinion of themselves become more accepting and supportive of themselves. M1Biological approachP1This approach focuses on the importance of the human body and the processes that control our behaviour and genetic inheritance. This approach looks at our thoughts, feelings and behaviours from a biological viewpoint. It has three different ways at looking at things these are the Comparative method which is studying and comparing different animal species, Physiology which is looking at how the nervous system, hormones and brain works and functions in away that affects behaviour, Finally the Investigation of Inheritance which is looking at what we inherit from our parents and our genetics. Our Genes are the blueprints to our body they come in pairs and contain our DNA, we inherit this from our parents 50% from each. We have 23 pairs, our genes affect the way we behave The relationship between your genes and behavior can change over time as you have new experiences. In some situations, genes play a larger role in determining your behavior; in other situations, environment plays a larger role in influencing your behavior. Hormones are chemical products that affect the activity of the body, they control, send messages and control the body, Melatonin cnotrols the sleeping and waking cycle, Testertone is the male sex hormone, Aderaline is in control of the fight and flight response, Oxytocin is in control of love and affection which is realeased when cuddling. Serotonin stabilizes the mood and emotions and Dopamine is in control of pleasure and addiction is a neurotransmitter which transmits signals around the neuromuscular junction. Gestell’s maturation theory is an idea of the body going through changes and how we mature with things like puberty which is physical changes with a child’s body to mature into an adult one and Dexterity which is skills that complete tasks with the hands . How is this approach useful for a nurse?This approach is useful for a nurse because it is helpful in diagnosing and treating the patient and it makes it easier to discover what is wrong with them it also helps them understand genetic predisposition. How is this approach useful for a social worker?This approach is useful for a social worker because it helps them fully understand what is going on with a person and therefore getting them the help they need becomes easier, a child in a children’s home can’t use a pen at 10 and hasn’t gone through puberty by age 18.