Reflection of learning

Assessment 1: Reflection of LearningInstructions: Write your reflection of learning into the template below. Remember that you need to use a minimum of six (6) sources of academic literature of which at least three (3) are peer-reviewed journal articles.Assignment Question: Why is it important for a nurse to know how the principles of Primary Health Care and social determinants of health influence health outcomes?Introduction (approx. 100 – 150 words) Nursing has become a very important part of health care and they are more people-centred than it used to be. Therefore, the study of nursing requires more than memorizing knowledge and following orders, we need the ability to think by ourselves and learn more about patients’ situation so we can offer better treatment. During the study of primary health care and social determinants of health, the importance of understanding more than anatomy and physiology for nursing becomes really obvious. When analyzing the clients’ health status, it is important that we know their living environment and habits, and we understand and respect their culture and provide a safe and fair service.Reflection (approx. 700 – 750 words) The declaration of Alma-Ata summarized primary health care as being fair and equal; assimilating among primary, secondary, and tertiary care; and boosting community care service(Crikey 2010). As stated in the Alma-Ata declaration, primary health care acts as a complete pathway to health system institution and intersectoral action for health. It appeared as a result of health system deficiencies that are prevalent in the late twenty centuries, many of which are still present today. These inadequacies included the disease-orientated system, which was costly and benefit only a small group of people; the approaches used by many health professionals that was partial and unfair; the lacking of comprehensive understanding of the importance of the social determinants of health; and failure to see the primary care as the core of health system (Hone & Macinco & Millett 2018). With this in mind, it is not hard to understand that primary health care is playing an important role in the health care system. It is usually considered as the first place to go when sick, so it was commonly considered to be fundamental and comprehensive. However, at the national level, it also assists a wide range of movements including intersectoral action for health and Health in All Policies; the advancement of well-being; focusing on the wider social determinants of health; world-wide health insurance; reducing health inequities; and the development of community health care (Hone & Macinco & Millett 2018). Therefore, nurses need a broader range of knowledge in order to work effectively within this primary health care setting (Fraser&Nadeau 2016). When discussing primary health care at the individual level, it can address almost 90% of the population’s health issues, including pregnancy care, vaccination, treatment for chronic diseases and palliative care (The Lancet 2018). Under the setting of primary health care that makes health care economical, available and adequate, nurses are stressed to change from health care provider to facilitator (Rahaman & Homles & Chartrand 2016). What’s more, by seeing being healthy as a human right and social engagement as an essential part of social justice, primary health care was proposed with a role in addressing social determinants of health (The Lancet 2018). Social determinants of health are defined by The World Health Organization (WHO 2013) as “the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, including the health system. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power, and resources at global, national and local levels”. Despite this is the most commonly used definition, some considered it is not complete, so the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2010) suggests a more complete one that describes the social determinants of health as “the complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems that include social and physical environments and health services. These determinants are shaped by the level of income, power, and resources at global, national and local levels. They are influenced not only through personal choices but through policy choices as well.” The study of the social determinants of health is very important for nurses because it has the same or even more effect on health status than medical treatment or proper health habits (Mahony & Jones 2013). For example, children who are born at different places have a dramatic difference in life expectancy, and their health is closely associated with their economic position (Gibson & Odeyemi 2013). Nurses are usually the group that has the most contact with patients, which means nurses can have the chance to observe and analyse the effect of social determinants of health on their patients, but they do not have the ability to control (Mahony & Jones 2013). The reality that the social determinants of health are playing an important part in health care is very clear, and there are still inadequacies in the health care system. The inequity of wealth distribution and the distribution of social resources seriously affect the conduct of equal health care. In order to be a qualified nurse, it is very important to acknowledge the importance of the historical and practical status of primary health care. By understanding its origin, more attention would be paid to the improvement of the deficiencies and future developments. More effective strategies are expected in addressing social determinants of health and the further application of primary health care.Conclusion (approx. 100-150 words) Social determinants of health have a huge effect on population’s health status, nurses would be able to offer better treatments when they have the knowledge base about social determinants of health and can make a proper prediction of the development of a patient’s disease. Primary health care is intended to keep the fairness of health care, addressing social determinants of health so that health care can be shared fairly and equally. Further advancement is required to solve the current problems and achieve a better health outcome.Reference ListCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010, Establishing a Holistic Framework to Reduce Inequities in HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and Tuberculosis in the United States, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, viewed 5 April 2019, <www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants> HYPERLINK "https://www-sciencedirect-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0140673618318294" l "!" HYPERLINK "https://www-tandfonline-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/author/Fraser,+Sarah+L" Fraser, SL & HYPERLINK "https://www-tandfonline-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/author/Nadeau,+Lucie" Nadeau, L 2015, “Experience and representations of health and social services in a community of Nunavik”, vol. 51, no. 2-3, pp. 286-300. HYPERLINK "https://www-magonlinelibrary-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/doi/full/10.12968/bjon.2012.21.2.128" o "Linda Gibson" Gibson, L & Odeyemi, P, 2013, “The social determinants of health and the patient safety paradigm”, British Journal of Nursing, vol. 21, no. 2.Hone, T & Macinko, J & HYPERLINK "https://www-sciencedirect-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0140673618318294" l "!" Millett, J 2018, “Revisiting Alma-Ata: what is the role of primary health care in achieving the sustainable development goals?”, The Lancet, vol. 392, no. 10156, pp. 1461-1472.International Conference on Primary Health Care 1978, Declaration of Alma-Ata, World Health Organization, viewed 5 April 2019, < HYPERLINK "https://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf" https://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf> HYPERLINK "https://onlinelibrary-wiley-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/action/doSearch?ContribAuthorStored=Kaiser,+Jennifer+A" Kaiser, JA 2018, “Nursing teamwork in a health system: A multisite study”, Nursing Management, vol.26, no.5, pp. 555-562.Mahony, D & Jones, EJ 2013, “Social determinants of health in nursing education, research, and health policy”, Sage, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 280-284. HYPERLINK "https://journals-sagepub-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/doi/10.1177/0898010116650773" Rahaman, Z & HYPERLINK "https://journals-sagepub-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/doi/10.1177/0898010116650773" Holmes, D & HYPERLINK "https://journals-sagepub-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/doi/10.1177/0898010116650773" Chartrand, L 2016, “An Opportunity for Healing and Holistic Care: Exploring the Roles of Health Care Providers Working Within Northern Canadian Aboriginal Communities”, Holistic nursing, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 185-197.The Lancet, 2018, “The Astana declaration: the future of primary health care?”, The Lancet, vol. 392, no. 10156, p. 1369.World Health Organization, 2013, Social determinants of health, WHO, viewed 5 April 2019, < HYPERLINK "http://www.who.int/social_determinants/en/" t "https://journals-sagepub-com.access.library.unisa.edu.au/doi/full/10.1177/_blank" http://www.who.int/social_determinants/en/> HLTH 1036 Global and National Health Weighting: 22% of Final Grade Assessment Feedback Form: Reflection of Learning Students name:Student ID:Criteria HD 85% or above Distinction 75 – 84% Credit 65 – 74% Pass 1 55 – 64% Pass 2 50 – 54% Fail 1 40 – 49% Fail 239% or belowIntroduction 10 Marks As for Distinction plus – introduction presents an innovative justification/analysis of assessment purpose and intention of the assessment task. As for Credit plus – introduction presents an advanced understanding of the assessment task. The components are well developed, comprehensive and concise As for P1 plus – introduction presents a thorough understanding of the components of the assessment taskAdequate justification of assessment purpose and intention. Outlines purpose and objectives of assessment task Provides justification for or outlines the significance of the assessment task with reference to academic literatureOutlines structure of assessment taskLimited introduction to assessment taskOne relevant component omitted or 1-2 components not clearly written.Inadequate/vague knowledge of assessment task. Little evidence of understanding of assessment task or topic for reflection.Introduction is missing or is unclear/confused.Criteria HD 85% or above Distinction 75 – 84% Credit 65 – 74% Pass 1 55 – 64% Pass 2 50 – 54% Fail 1 40 – 49% Fail 239% or belowReflection of learning40 marksReflection demonstrates advanced critical thinking and analysis and presents an exceptional understanding of the key concepts of the question. Reflection demonstrates highly developed critical thinking and analysis and presents an advanced understanding of the key concepts of the question.Reflection is well detailed and presents a thorough understanding of the key concepts of the question. Reflection presents an adequate understanding of the key concepts of the question. Reflection provides a limited understanding of the key concepts of the question. The work is descriptive rather than reflective. Reflection is brief and descriptive Inadequate understanding of the concepts of the question. No evidence of understanding of the concepts of the questionCriteria HD 85% or above Distinction 75 – 84% Credit 65 – 74% Pass 1 55 – 64% Pass 2 50 – 54% Fail 1 40 – 49% Fail 239% or belowAdequacy of the investigation of literature on topic20 marksExceptional review of literature. Reflection integrates an extensive range of relevant course resources, peer reviewed journal articles and other high quality academic sources. Advanced review of literature. Reflection integrates a wide range of relevant sources including course resources, peer reviewed journal articles and other sources of information.Thorough review of literature. Reflection integrates relevant course resources, peer reviewed journals articles and wider materials. Adequate review of literature. Reflection refers to peer reviewed journal articles, course materials and other resources. Limited review of literature. Minimal use of relevant peer reviewed journal articles and course materials. Inadequate review and use of literature. Does not meet the minimum requirements as outlined in the assignment question. No reference to peer reviewed journal articles, relevant reading or course materials.Criteria HD 85% or above Distinction 75 – 84% Credit 65 – 74% Pass 1 55 – 64% Pass 2 50 – 54% Fail 1 40 – 49% Fail 239% or belowConclusion 10 MarksAs for Distinction, but exemplary; provides a comprehensive explanation of learning achieved in relation to the topic of reflection. Summarises all main points in reflection without being repetitive. Detailed explanation of learning achieved in relation to the topic of reflectionGood alignment between introduction and conclusion. Summarises the main points in reflection. Returns reader to topic of reflection. Provides a sound explanation of learning achievedAlignment between introduction & conclusion is sound but some improvements could be madeSummarises most main points in reflection. Returns reader to topic of reflection and indicates learning achievedSome alignment between introduction & conclusion. Summarises some main points in the reflectionMinimal evidence of returning reader to topic of reflection or learning achievedMain points in body of refection not summarised. OrLimited evidence of returning reader to topic of reflection and what learning was achievedOrNew information present.Unclear/no conclusion. No evidence of returning reader to topic of reflection or learning achievedCriteria HD 85% or above Distinction 75 – 84% Credit 65 – 74% Pass 1 55 – 64% Pass 2 50 – 54% Fail 1 40 – 49% Fail 239% or belowAcademic Writing and presentation10 marks Writing is exceptional and adheres to all guidelines: sentence & paragraph structure, grammar, spelling punctuationuse of 3rd personuse of inclusive languageword limit metwell sequencedlogical flow Writing is well developed and adheres to all guidelines: sentence & paragraph structure, grammar, spelling punctuationuse of 3rd personuse of inclusive languageword limit metwell sequencedlogical flow Writing is sound and adheres to all guidelines:sentence & paragraph structure, grammar, spelling punctuationuse of 1st or 3rd personuse of inclusive languageword limit metmostly sequencedmostly an adequate logical flow Writing is at a satisfactory level and adheres to most guidelines:sentence & paragraph structure, grammar, spelling punctuationuse of 1st personuse of inclusive languageword limit metmostly sequencedmostly an adequate logical flowWriting is at a limited level. Adheres to some guidelines: sentence & paragraph structure, grammar, spelling punctuationuse of 1st personinclusive languageword limitsequencinglogical flow Writing is inadequate. Adheres to very few guidelines: sentence & paragraph structure, grammar, spelling punctuationuse of 1st personInclusive languagebelow/ above word limit poorly sequenced poor logical flow Writing is very poor. Limited sentence & paragraph structure, grammar, spelling punctuationuse of 1st personinclusive languagewell below/ well above the word limit not sequencedno logical flowCriteria HD 85% or above Distinction 75 – 84% Credit 65 – 74% Pass 1 55 – 64% Pass 2 50 – 54% Fail 1 40 – 49% Fail 239% or belowReferencing and academic integrity10 marks Exceptional. Extensive sources of academic literature integrated in-text and Reference List is correctly presented as per UniSA (2018) Harvard Guidelines. Advanced. Multiple academic sources integrated in text and Reference List correctly presented as per UniSA (2018) Harvard System Guidelines Sound. All sources of information are referred to in-text and are correctly presented in the reference list as per UniSA (2018) Harvard System Guidelines. Adheres to UniSA (2018) Harvard author-date system for in-text referencing and Reference List No evidence of plagiarism.In-text references mostly use author date. The reference list is complete and mostly correct according to the UniSA. Mostly correct use of UniSA (2018) Harvard author-date system for in-text referencing and Reference ListNo evidence of plagiarism. The assignment has some inconsistencies in formatting and omissions according to the UniSA Harvard style guide. Refer to Study Support resourcesSome use of in-text referencing with several inaccuracies and omissions.Reference list incorrect and/or incomplete with several errors.Some evidence of plagiarism.Possible referral to AIO Many inaccuracies with in-text referencing and in the reference list, and/or numerous direct quotes, and/or reference list not included. Extensive plagiarismRefer to AIOTutor: Grade Summary Comments

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