School-Based Health Services

Many schools try to tackle the health requirements of their learners. Local school control and government distinctions in supported programs result in heterogeneity in the kinds of schools offering health facilities, as well as in their quality and staffing (Lear 2002 as cited in Rochmes, 2016). Although state mandates set minimum health rules that students must meet (Brener et al. 2007; Lear 2002 as cited in Rochmes, 2016), schools can vary from simply fulfilling (or even failing to meet minimum demands) to providing a small set of facilities, to providing a variety of services in an extensive school-based health center or SBHC. Although SBHCs are comparatively rare (Brener et al. 2007 as cited in Rochmes, 2016), they are the most studied model for offering healthcare in schools, giving the bulk of our insight into anticipated impacts. Studies of SBHCs — typically full-scale clinics offering a variety of physical and mental health facilities (Dryfoos 1995 ; Gustafson 2005 ; Silberberberg and Cantor 2008 as cited in Rochmes, 2016) — provide proof that extensive school-based healthcare improves access, service delivery and health status measures (Allison et al. 2007 ; Federico et al. 2010 ; McNall, Lichty and Mavis 2010 ; Wade et al. 2008 as cited in Rochmes, 2016). While proponents claim that offering health facilities in schools supports educational achievement, comparatively little study looks at academic rather than health results (Geierstanger et al. 2004; Ladd 2012 as cited in Rochmes, 2016). For instance, McCord et al. (1993) discover mixed outcomes on how the presence and use of SBHC is related to absences and beneficial impacts on remaining in college and graduation (Rochmes, 2016). Kisker and Brown (1996) discover a tiny benefit among SBHC learners in advancement through college compared to a national youth sample ; they evaluate participation and dropout rates for SBHC learners, but do not compare them with other organizations (Rochmes, 2016). A more latest research finds that SBHC uses predicts better attendance and GPA gains, but that enhanced attendance outcomes mainly from medical visits whereas enhanced GPA results mainly from mental health visits (Walker et al. 2010 as cited in Rochmes, 2016)—with “medical”” visits versus “”mental health”” visits recognized based on the type of physician rather than the type of service received. Other study investigating staffing finds that having a full-time nurse decreases health-related dismissals

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