Since last estimated, the population of the aboriginal and Torres strait islanders population of the country was 798,400 individuals, which is 3.3% of Australia’s population in 2016. This has significantly increased to 19% in the aboriginal and Torres strait islander population estimate from the from the estimation from 2011, of 669,900. The population of Australian aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is extremely diverse in its culture with many different languages spoken. Australia’s indigenous people are two separate cultural groups produced of aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Though there is a grater diversity within the two largely described groups illustrated by the over 250 different spreaded across the nation. Many of the indigenous Australians people hold unique languages, knowledge systems and also beliefs, and acquire vitual traditional knowledge for the environmental management of the natural resources and have a special understanding and use of their traditional land, waters or territories. Indigenous people had widespread language skill because they came across many dialects and languages. Some individual indigenous could and still speak a number of dialects and languages, they often spoke a native language from their father, mother and spouse and would usually know the languages of other groups. Each tribe and clan also had different languages and registers used within each other eg, sign language, ceremonial language and gender specific languages. These languages are diverse, with complicated grammars and extensive vocabularies. There is a wide range of phrasing used to portray the aboriginal Torres strait islanders, and these terms can be cruel or offensive. It is important to understand terms used and what the mean before shooting it out on somebody. There are words that can be both positively and negatively by the community to describe the Aboriginal Torres strait islanders. Example the word “Aborigine”, can be used to describe someone as an individual and also can be racist connotations from the Australia’s colonial past. There are other words used negatively on the Aboriginal Torres strait islanders would be: Abo, Blacky, dirty, homeless, and many more words that society uses that can create a impacts of the individuals emotional wellbeing and sense of identity. it could cause them to feel unwanted , and upset which may lead them to depression or anxiety.There are terms used by society to describe the Aboriginal Torres strait Islanders in positive ways. The terms could be, aboriginal person, Indigenous, Torres straight islanders or even by their tribes. When using the positive terms, it makes the individual feel respected and accepted and comfortable.Every individual care needs are different, although all people have the same needs, such as water, food, shelter and a sense of belonging. The Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander people can often have barriers and limitations to specific needs. Depending of the individuals condition, the factors are an adequate standard of living, health issues, access to education, employment opportunities, safety and security and a sense of identity. Health is one of the most important to an individual, some indigenous Australians have poor health and face a number of health risks. Because they have limited access and difficulty related with education, employment, and income, their health condition is related with social unfairness. Indigenous adults concerns are similar to the non-indigenous people experience. Popularity of some conditions and diseases are commonly higher in the indigenous population. for example a higher percentage of the indigenous people have a long term risk of alcohol consumption and smoking compared to the non-indigenous people. The Australian government is recognising the health statutes of Indigenous Australians as their health issue is an important issue in the Australian society and their health issues and concerns are at a higher percentage than they do among any other group in Australia and is working is support their health wellbeing. Close the Gap is a campaign run by the government to help improve the health statuses and increase their life line of the Aboriginal Torres Strait Islanders. The aboriginal Torres Strait Islanders have difficulty accessing to the educational facilities, mostly to those who live around the in the remote community. Most people are accessible to primary schools, thought secondary schools the accesses differs significantly. Indigenous university graduates are increasing as the Indigenous participation in university changes due to the new developed schools and courses that the tertiary institutions have done that are specifically to the indigenous population. most institutions offer pathways and opportunities for Indigenous students that apply for courses and scholarships that are available to them, to support their tertiary education careers. The employment percentage amongst the indigenous people is lower that that among Australia’s general population. During 2018 the government has failed to meet its goal for having the gap in employment between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. The recent census data shows the amount of Indigenous unemployment gap across Australia appears to have reduced from 20.2% to 11.6%. To rectify both the disadvantages and the unequal scarcity of access to employment services the government tries to provide a numerous types of assistance and support for the Indigenous through the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations.They are many concerns involving the safety and security of the indigenous population because compared to the non-indigenous people, the indigenous are at a higher rate of injury in relation to death, hospitalisation and emergency treatment. The govern has placed strategies in place to minimise accidental injury, intentional self-harm and violence. The local communities have to focus on the safety and to deal with conflicts to develop plans and strategies for requiring change and supporting indigenous peoples wellbeing. Sens of identity directly relates to an individual’s self-esteem and self-confidence. Some indigenous people experience low-self-esteem because of the historical and the contemporary discrimination and prejudgment that are aimed towards them have influenced then negatively in relation to their sense of identity. Indigenous students may lack confidence in their skills and abilities, and might have limited self-belief if they struggle with expressing themselves by speech or text. These such things make the individual feel like they are unworthy and useless, this then may affect their mental health. All these needs are very important to have and can cause an impact on the individual, although, the most important needs for the indigenous people are health and employment. Without having the satisfactory physical health and individual’s life span will decrease due to many diseases and illnesses being developed. Health determines on you physical activeness and the food and drink intake. Spending some time outdoor would be useful for your physical health. Daily activity not only benefits the body, but it also benefits emotional health through the sense of wellbeing. Indigenous people also need self-esteem so they could value them selves and feel worthy. Having a high self esteem gives a positive mentality, positive relationships with others and feel confident about your abilities. They also need the esteem of others, respect from people and motivation form family and friends and society, to keep them going and make them have positive thoughts and values their contribution to society. Being without either kin of esteem can leave you feeling useless and helpless or inferior.Being isolated and anti-social can affect an individual’s sense of belonging, reasons which cause this may be not having any connection to family and also being poor in the environment. Racism still exist towards the indigenous and treated differently by their skin colour and their heritage, some people believe that the indigenous are provided way too much from the government and is “unfair” which creates the segregation within society. These people are not educated and have enough knowledge about the history of the Aboriginal Torres Strait islanders, and these words are taken to offence and can cause an impact on ones sense of identity.A large percentage of Indigenous Australians live in regional or remote areas and their access to essential services and facilities is decreased. The indigenous group needs support to many services regarding their needs, these include, quality of live, education, employment and health care. The Australian government supports them in relation to financial support, employment and legal aid. The government have introduced many schemes for financial support, for example to enable indigenous people to study and to meet the costs associated with living and parenting. Some of the schemes are, ABSTUDY, the Newstart allowance, the assistance for isolated children, the remote area allowance, the schoolkids bonus. Because indigenous people come across poorer health than others, the government has founded many health-care programs that targets mental health, dental and optical health, and general health. The health programs provided are, Primary health care, The aboriginal and Torres strait islander chronic disease fund, The Australian nurse family partnership program, Healthy for life, new directions: mother and babies services, strong fathers, strong families. The government provides the AMIE service in order to target Indigenous education, the objective of which is to increase the year 10 completion rate, the year 12 completion rate and the rate of tertiary education admissions among young indigenous people.There are many barriers an Indigenous individual can have which affects them which it comes to accessing resources. Some of these barriers can be characteristics of individuals within the group and available recourses and aspects of the services.One of the biggest issues is the cultural differences that exist between the indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. Some the characteristics of the indigenous people will impact on the peoples access to numerous support services. Culturally and traditionally, Aboriginal Torres strait Islanders live off the land and have beliefs in healing by using elements such as, plants herbs and minerals. They have the belief of receiving guidance and support through their elders, and that ritual does not relate with modern, westernised health-care preparations. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may not be well educated enough to notice if they are diagnosed with any disease or illness and not be aware of those symptoms that give you a sign that you are sick. For example, the westernised culture have made programs and institutions for people to have free check-ups to determine if they have any signs of STD, HIV or any other disease and also for lumps and unusual skin that may be cancerous.Indigenous people may not have sufficient knowledge of the services and programs that are free and available to them, the lack of knowledge may be direct or indirect. For example, in the secluded indigenous community, some may not know or have an understanding why having to brush your teeth every day is important, and this issue may lead to dental problems that can affect them in a long term, although the lack of knowledge the people have about dental hygiene, the people wont know that they need to visit a dentist.In the case of education, people among this group have a low level of employment and which makes them develop the need of taking any employment opportunities then can, and discontinue university, TAFE, because the tertiary education is too costly and might put their families in trouble to afford it. This issue may be continuous to the next generation, which is why establishment of funding assistance to the Indigenous Australians is very important. Many of aspects of services can have a restricting or discouraging effect of the indigenous people. The aspects can be the opening hours of the service, the essential of privacy, and where the service is located and its staffing. Most of the Indigenous communities are minor, and many of the people know each other, because of this reason some of the people wont have the courage to visit these services because the other might be aware that they have, and the word will spread. For example, if a program is held frequently about alcoholism and drug use, many people might not attend, because then people will find out that they are struggling with a serious issue and may feel ashamed about it, even though they are aware that its best if they visited those programs to help them with their issues. The stuffs of these programs and services might also be the barrier of avoiding them, because the Indigenous culture have a traditional great deal of respect for their Elders. People may not feel connected or have trust in the doctor because they are not an Indigenous Australian which makes them avoid to visit the doctor for a regular check-up.The government have made a policy by the name of “Closing the gap”, the aims that the government tries to achieve are • Closing the life-expectancy gap between the indigenous and younger non-indigenous people• Halving the gap in mortality rates for indigenous children younger than five• Facilitating access to early childhood education for indigenous children four years old and younger in remote communities• Halving the gap in reading, writing and numeracy• Halving the gap in year 12 completion rates• Halving the gap in employment outcomesIn 2011 “closing the gap” was going well for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and their goals were being met, though by 2017-2018 unfortunately the government has failed to support and help the Indigenous with his six target areas, and one of them mostly being the employment of the Indigenous group. One of the few targets currently on track was the goal to halve the gap in Year 12 graduation rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. One of the recent data shows the amount of Indigenous unemployment across Australia and in Queensland’s remote communities. The unemployment gap appears to have reduced from 20.2% to 11.6% across Australia and from 53.6% to 30.7% I n Queensland’s remote communities. The gap in median weekly personal income is also widening between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians both nationally and across Queensland’s remote communities.Many groups in society experience inequity issues. Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander people experience iniquity way back to when the white people toke their land and settled in Australia. Ever since that time the Indigenous peoples life was consequently changed forever and irreversible damage was done. Issues have arisen to not being treated equally and moral treatment. The settlement has created a greater impact on the Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander people, when their sense of identity was gone once the stolen generation began and children were forced to avoid speaking their language and taught to live like the “whites” and forced to change their names, also were told that their families have abandoned them and didn’t want their company. This has created a mental illness like depression and anxiety in a long term and has developed them to feel the sense of confusion and loss of identity between themselves. The government justified their actions as an aim to improve the lives of Indigenous people, which failed due to the white society refusing the acceptance of the Indigenous Australians as equals. From 1995 to 1997 the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) undertook a National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families. The Commission’s findings were published in 1997 in the Bringing Them Home Report. As a result of this recommendation the Australian Government funded a national network of family tracing and reunion services – the National Link-Up Program. The treatment they were given can ever be forgotten or gone, but by the way of the government policy and education, steps can be taken and help the Indigenous Australians in the right direction creating a better future for the group. The Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander people change the way community perceives then as and had influenced their attitudes towards then in a number of ways. Indigenous Australians influence, inspire and promote health and wellbeing in many ways. The group are making contributions to the community, and also helping family and friends that should be unnoticed. Many Indigenous people have noteworthy contribution to the society, and one of the is Eddie Mabo. Mabos most known contribution to the community was fight for the land rights and the native tile acts. The cases have been on going for ten years and unfortunate didn’t get to see his achievement after his death from cancer at the age of 55.Indigenous people inspire people with their music, dance, art, sport and tourism and many more one of the most inspiring is an aboriginal art by the artist Albert Namatjira, his work is cherished feature of most Australian art galleries in the new millennium. Archaeologists have found ancient painting the date back tens of thousands of years, art works that were used to convey indigenous cultural stories.Advocacy is staking a step to change an issue in society and raise awareness within communities and educate them as well as promote the rights of the group. The Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander people raise awareness not within their community but also in the wider community, their major issue is education, without education an individual wont have a better life quality and are not expected to make the right defections for themselves about important subjects like, health, employment, right of land, education, and within the family. It is important for the group to be educated but also to educate others in the community about the issues arising within the indigenous groups so the community will have a greater understanding and appreciation to the cultural diversity.Adam Goodes, has been fighting over the racism towards the Indigenous and involves himself in many programs to raise awareness for aboriginals to have a brighter future and also works in the indigenous athletes program and many more. These groups have a positive impact on the community educating them about what the Aboriginals Torres Strait Islander people are going through and also support them and have an understanding to join programs and services and raise awareness and also influence others to see into the bigger picture of how the indigenous Australians have along this way and create diversity within the groups and communities to unite and grow as a nation.
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