Upon doing some research in to child development it covers a variety of different ways in which a child can learn and it is split into a number of categories it has also highlighted the following factors for children 0-19 years.It is important to understand how the brains developmentfrom pre birth and in the first 12 months influences and shapes the infants personal, social, emotional, physical and cognitive development. Sensory development and attachments are closely linked, as are language development and relationship building with other people and the world around the child. (early years for level 4&5 and the foundation degree)Physical development – Can cover and mean a variety of different things for different ages and stages of children, for small babies this would mean gaining muscle control such as holding their heads up, moving and kicking their legs, moving their heads to gaze around a room Gaining the strength and confidence to grab at items, pull themselves up and begin to learn to crawl, walk, run and negotiate their spaces to ensure they have enough room to maneuver correctly. As the children progress and become older it can include gross motor movements such as large mark making with various materials children need to gain confidence to make large movements before moving on to the smaller movements, use of different kinds of equipment such as bikes and scooters climbing on and jumping of objects, gaining their balance and learning how equipment works for their bodies. Fine motor movements such as holding a pencil and making small mark, threading using laces and beads and picking up that smallest sequin off the floor, this would come as the children progress. Physical development is about learning to master movements and this allows a child or young person to become independent. They master the ability to explore and interact the world and environment around them. The muscles in the body need to develop and gain strength and as they do, the body is able to coordinate better.Within my setting we have had children that have experienced delays within their physical development, we have changed the whole environment to ensure they are able to participate with good outcomes for the individual child. It is important to look at space within the room so that the child can freely access the variety of activities and provocations that are on offer with ease and confidence. We always liaise with parents and external agencies such as physio and health visitors to ensure we are providing everything that the individual child may need to support them with their development.Communication – This is very important as it opens up a whole new way of learning, it is important to learn how to communicate with others on a one to one basis and find their best ways for communicating. Within my role I have experienced a variety of ways to communicate with children and these are things like body language and facial gestures, sign language and holding hands out to encourage active involvement. We have also found that not all children enjoy communicating with others and it can often make them sit back, I would then try and build up a relationship with the child and find out their interest so I could try and incorporate it within their play, I would read stories one to one and talk through props such as a teddy bear to support them with their communication skills. For an older child who finds communicating difficult I would introduce a note book so that they could write down any thoughts and feelings they might have. We could use the mirroring technique which would encourage the child to do something and a practitioner would “mirror” their behaviours- we have food this to be very good technique as it breaks the ice with the children gaining confidence within you.intellectual / cognitive – This is the way in which an individual processes information within their brain and the way in which they retain different information such as shapes and colours / numbers and letters. Cognitive development is how children think, explore and figure things out. Brain development is part of cognitive development and it helps children understand the world in which they live. It is important to support the children with cognitive development as soon as they are born because doing so provides the foundations for the child’s successes in later life. Research shows that children who can distinguish sound at six months of age are better at acquiring the skills for learning to read at four and five years of age (http://helpmegrowmn.org). There are many things we can do as practitioners to support the children with their cognitive development they are things such as exposing the children to books and puzzles, freedom to explore and problem solve, singing and reading together, use of common words eg naming of objects as they are used, expand of interests and provocations for play, asking and answering why questions. Social, emotional and behavioural – This is the way in which we form and maintain relationships. It can also include communication, because if communication didn’t exist there would be no basis for a relationship, a child needs to feel safe and secure in order for them to have a secure relationship. Children should be confident in the relationships that they have and should be able to make their own choices. My setting provides safe and secure relationships for the children that we care for we offer a key person system throughout their whole nursery experience, the key person spends one to one time with each of their key children and is responsible for completing their individual learning programmes, liaising with parents and getting to know the children to a good standard. We have found this system is very beneficial at nursery and they children are thriving well with the support of their practitioners. Moral – Having good morals is good in any kind of environment, it is important that we take others and their thoughts and opinions in to consideration, this might be cultural beliefs, religious backgrounds, sexuality, individual choices such as being vegetarian/vegan. Intelectual or moral development is about the decisions that children take, principles they adopt and their behaviours towards others. Children begin to process and understand information, developing their memory, thinking and questioning skills. At my setting we encourage children to use our “nursery rules” as part of us working towards British Values, we support the children in achieving the use of their manners, walking feet and kind hands towards others. This supports the children in building up empathy towards others and realizing that we need to take others feelings in to consideration. Children’s experiences both at home and at nursery/ school support children with their physical, cognitive, emotional and social skills and can help them develop an understanding of what is right and wrong. This usually happens between the ages of 2- 5 years. Identity – Its is important that all children are aware of their own identity and what makes them unique, they should be free to make their own choices and supported with their decisions (within reasons relating to the individuals age and stage of development). Children will gain a sense of belonging and achievement if they are free to make their own choices.Age Physical development Communication Intellectual/ cognitive Social, emotional and behavioural Moral identity0- 1 years Gaining muscle control, kicking of legs, holding head up to look around room, crawling and walking Facial gestures, smiling, singing songs, babbling and noise making Very oral, puts things to mouth as a way of experimenting. Attachments with main care giver, notice when they leave the room 1- 2 years Developing a sense of space and is able to negotiate spaces to run, jump of large equipment, large mark making experiences, begin to self feed, undo zips, Able to use more words and follow simple instructions such as “can you get your cup please” Has a good exploratory sense and eager to explore new and exciting things, Can sometimes be still attached to main care giver, may have good relationships with nursery staff Is aware of others around them, beginning to show empathy Makes own choices with regards to self feeding, activity preferences 3-5 years Good physical development, run, walk, jump, balance, use pencil using pincer grip, letter formation Uses a good range of vocabulary and able to speak in sentences, able to talk about home life and re tell past events with ease and confidence Know what their body needs and is able to identify when tired, hungry or needs to bathroom Able to separate from main carer with ease Is aware of others around them and knows that the behaviours they show can have impact on others Able to make own choices and is able to identify how individuals differ but that’s what makes the unique. 5-12 years Joins in with physical demanding activities that may be of interest to themselves Has good level of communication and is able to describe own feelings, Incorporates details into pictures when drawing, understands numeracy and literacy Still has secure attachment with main carer, independent and does things for themselves Has a good understanding of others and their emotional feelings, can show empathy towards others. Able to express own choices and highlight likes and dislikes and explain why, understand that people are different.12-18 years These are now fully developed Very good level of communication and is able to explain in depth. Continue to broaden knowledge with different language styles Develops a good understanding of ideas and is able to put own thoughts and ideas into practice Highly influenced by peer group and often becomes emotionally unattached from main care giver, independent and likes to make own choices Has a good understanding of others and their emotional feelings, can show empathy towards others. Independent in making own choices 19 years These are now fully developed Use of different language styles and continue to broaden knowledge Continue to develop own understanding of the world and how we can make our own life style choices. Becomes independent and choices own lifestyles and choices. Has a good understanding of others and their emotional feelings, can show empathy towards others. Independent in making own choices There are many reasons why a child’s development may not be at expected levels they are the following :Disability – This could be down to an unidentified disability which is delaying the child, people haying high expectations for a child to complete a task or learn something new but they can’t physically complete due to disability. Emotionally – If there are issues at home or socially a child might not be in the right frame of mind to want to learn, therefore would not participate in said activities. Or if a child was experiencing emotional suffering such as relocation or settling in a new nursery, this can also affect a child’s development.Physical – could be suffering a genetic disorder which restricts their development Environmental – This could be down to the environment in which the child might live, if the environment is not enriching and inviting for the children, they might not feel comfortable in reaching their full potential when learning takes place, they may not be confident to try new things because of the experiences they have/ are suffering.Cultural – Social – Learning needs – Communication – If a child is struggling with communicating with others, this could result in the child experiencing behavioural issues out of frustration, therefore not in the right frame of mind to want to learn.Genetic – could be suffering a physical disorder which restricts their development. Some children’s genetic code may affect the pattern in the ways that the children develop, this could mean that they are slower or it takes longer for the child to process the information before deciding what to do with it.