Urban Roots (Urban Roots Cooperative Garden Market, n.d.), a Community Garden Market in Buffalo, NY is a for-profit Brick & Mortar garden retail center that offers plants and plant related supplies and has about 1,167 member-owners today.Work Specialization and Departmentalization: Urban Roots follows functional departmentalization wherein activities are grouped based on the functions being performed (Urban Roots Cooperative Garden Market, n.d.)• Board Directors: activities such as hiring and dismissal of General Managers are performed by Board of Directors. Additionally, they are responsible for conducting standing and ad-hoc committees• Board President: appoint chair and co-chair for each ad-hoc committee• Chair and co-chair: document and submit reports from ad-hoc sessions to other members• Treasurer: oversee financial planning • General Manager: activities of a general manager are to coordinate and facilitate the daily functioning of the co-op• Co-ops: care for the nursery and customer serviceAmong the board of directors, Chain of Command extends from the President, who has the highest point of authority in this organization, followed by the other directors, GM and finally the co-ops. Decision making within Urban Roots is decentralized, as co-op related decision-making power lies with the GM only and GM related decision-making power lies with the directors. Being a small community owned garden, formalization is low and co-ops have a certain degree of freedom in their job which breeds innovation. Boundary Spanning, both internal and external is encouraged at urban roots through community engagement and volunteer programs with residents in the neighborhood and new board members. Ipsy, an online beauty community offers its customers with beauty samples for a monthly subscription fee (Ipsy, About Us, n.d.). With its headquarters in San Mateo, California, Ipsy was set up to democratize beauty, making it accessible and affordable for everyone (Ipsy, About Us, n.d.) was founded by Jennifer Jaconetti Goldfarb, Marcelo Camberos, Michelle Phan, employs 201-500 employees and over 3M members. Work Specialization and DepartmentalizationIpsy follows functional departmentalization of its job activities to accommodate the following roles (Ipsy, About Us, n.d.)• Accounting: ledger operations and monthly account reconciliations.• Administration: ensure employees and visitors have a great experience• Analytics: builds forecast models with key company metrics• Brand Partnership: maintain brand database with purchasing, and reporting• Creative: further divided into Beauty and Digital Media creativity• Customer Service: member support • Engineering: developing external facing applications to reach end users• Finance: oversee financial team, analysis and reporting• Growth: responsible for planning, campaign creation, and optimization of the brand• Marketing: responsible for marketing initiatives across various channels to ensure member retention• Membership: responsible for member experience activities• Merchandising: merchandise planning support and reporting• Operations: responsible for fulfillment, shipping and e-commerce operations• People: Strategic thinking and sourcing creative people• Product: responsible to integration of products with technology to create personalized member experience• Strategic New Business: responsible for end-to-end support of vendor, product and production management• Studio: further divided into Video Editors and Community Management CoordinatorsChain of Command extends from the CEO who has the highest point of authority in this organization and each managerial position in has chain with the authority to accomplish his/her responsibilities (Robbins, Judge, 2018). Decision making at Ipsy is centralized with senior level management responsible for all the major decision within the organization and lower-level managers merely following the orders. Formalization is higher in activities such as engineering, finance, operations, customer service. Activities that require certain degree of flexibility and interaction such as beauty and digital media creativity, growth, marketing and community management coordinators are considerably less standardized and allows for innovation to retain customer base. Internal Boundary Spanning is encouraged at Ipsy with members from each team constantly interactive with each other to make the application best suitable for member experience and external boundary spanning through online media options to interact with customers and community members.Founded by Leonard Riggio, Barnes & Noble is known to have 627 retail stores in 50 states, operates one of the Web’s premier e-commerce sites, BN.com and offers its readers with a digital reading experience with NOOK. (About B&N, 2016). Work Specialization and DepartmentalizationAt a high level, Barnes & Noble follows process departmentalization by categorizing their activities into retail, corporate and distribution related. Within each of these categories, functional departmentalization is used to further group activities as shown below (About B&N, 2016) • Retail: activities focus on customer service – store manager, barista/café server, bookseller, floor manager, community business development manager• Corporate: finance and operation activities – finance, HR, IT, marketing, merchandising, digital/e-commerce, corporate communications, store operations• Distribution Center: inventory management activities, distribution and logistics related activities – warehouse clerk, material handler, track & trace coordinator Chain of Command extends from the CEO who has the highest point of authority in this organization and each managerial position in this chain has the authority to accomplish his/her responsibilities (Robbins, Judge, 2018). Decision making is centralized at corporate headquarters whereas at the retail and distribution centers it is decentralized. Formalization is higher at corporate and distribution activities and considerably lower at the retail centers wherein the store managers have the freedom and flexibility to make changes as needed (while still ensuring alignment with the organization’s policies) to provide the best customer service. Internal Boundary Spanning is encouraged at Barnes & Noble with members from each team constantly interactive with each other within their process departments and external boundary spanning between retail employees and customers to keep up with popular cultures and trends so that the best customer service is offered.