1 There are several instances that showcase Ana’s behavior being influenced by

1). There are several instances that showcase Ana’s behavior being influenced by learning. Classical conditioning: the process that involves the repetitive combination of two specific stimuli (conditioned and the unconditioned) that leads to a gradual strengthening of the response that turns an unconditioned response into a conditioned one associated with the stimuli (Rehman & Rehman, 2019).Neutral stimulus: ID tags worn by health professionals (e.g. doctors/nurses)Unconditioned stimulus: Strange/bad smells, unfamiliar noises, sick peopleUnconditioned response: Fear expressed through crying/screamingConditioned stimulus: ID tags presented (worn by intake worker)Conditioned response: Fear (crying/screaming)Operant conditioning: a type of learning that is affected by the consequences of an organism’s behavior (Staddon & Cerruti, 2002).There are a few examples in which operant conditioning occurs.• Kat’s response to Ana’s naughty or otherwise disruptive behavior by giving sweets/toys that results in the child stopping her behavior is an example of positive reinforcement; presenting a positive (reward) stimulus that results in a desired outcome and thus increases the likelihood of the behavior process repeating (Dallery, Jarvis, Kurti).• Chris’ response to Ana’s negative behavior (e.g. not greeting intake worker, hitting mother during discussion with worker) is to withdraw certain pleasant stimuli (doll, TV) to evoke a desired reaction from her (obeying and showing good behavior), an example of negative punishment. Social Learning: learning derived from social interactions, as well as through observing others, often promoting behavioral change (Razieh, 2012).In this case, Ana has evidently observed and modelled her father’s aggressive behavior following his work-related injury. Seeing how he reacts negatively to the doctors, Ana likewise is more aggressive towards children at the daycare center. This is likely due to how the children there mock her for her eye-patch, and thus she employs this behavior to stop their reaction towards her patch. 2). Identify Anna’s probable stage of psychosocial and cognitive development:Psychosocial Development: investigates the social interactions of people throughout the proposed eight stages of life, as well as how they progress through each stage (Chung, 2018). Probable stage of psychosocial development: Initiative vs Guilt Initiative-wise, Ana is asserting her needs/desires. She is confident in expressing this through a mixed-use of verbal and non-verbal communication. Examples of this can be seen throughout the interviews with the intake worker she expresses when she would like to leave (agitated screaming), or when she conveys greed when presented with the potential of acquiring chocolate (body language and tone of voice). In terms of guilt, this can be seen throughout her childcare environment. In the letter written from her childcare they mention she can be isolated at times and often disregards the feelings of others. Cognitive Development: development of internal processes relating to things such as imagining and reasoning affected by biological, psychological and environmental factors (Fink & Rookers, 2014). According to Jean Piaget’s theory relating to cognitive development, Ana would be placed in the preoperational stage, where children are characterised by particular ways of thinking.• Egocentric: she demonstrates a lack of consideration towards her mother or the intake worker as shown when yelling and hitting them. She shows reluctance in listening to her carers in her childcare environment and displays hostility towards them • Pretend Play: playing with dolls and imitation of driving a car with a toy model a) What factors as described in the case enquiry might be impacting on Ana’s development? • Family situation and environment: being an only child and unable to spend time with her parents due to their circumstances (working/indisposed/otherwise preoccupied)• Not having any other family around (having moved from a former Yugoslavian state, Macedonia)• Witnessing her father express negativity (pain, sadness, frustration) • Different methods of parenting (Kat is more lenient/compassionate, whereas Chris has a much stricter stance)• Having spent much of her time visiting her father in a rehabilitation centre that she dislikes and spending time in a childcare centre where she isn’t comfortable/enjoying herself • Her own impairments and injuries, such as needing to wear an eye patch and having a potentially injured armb) What influences are these developmental factors having on Ana’s behaviour as described in the case enquiry?• Witnessing negativity from her father has changed Anna’s personality, as she is beginning to model many of these traits. These are causing her behaviour to also become hostile/provocative. This results in dichotomy between herself and her social groups, as well as an inability to understand how to act approximately in a social context.• After her father’s accident and the implications resulting of the head trauma, the relationship between father and daughter is visibly strained (as noted in Kat’s notes on her daughter’s behaviour relating to Chris, as well as her verbal expression on the matter). This in turn would negatively impact on Ana’s behaviour.• With her impairments and injuries, it’s noted by her mother that she is being bullied by others and that the other children are calling her names which could have caused her to disengage with her peers and detach from the greater social environment of the childcare centre. 3). In what ways are issues with memory impacting on Ana (either as a result of Ana’s own memory, and/or the memory processes of other significant people in the enquiry)?Memory is a process that encompasses a variety of subcomponents that can be broadly defined as the ability to recall and retrieve information over a varying period (Brem, Ran & Pascual-Leone, 2014). Specifically regarding Ana herself, the way she reacts when the ID tag is presented by the intake worker is a display of long-term memory. In particular, the way she associates the ID tag with the negative stimuli (bad smells, loud noises) is an example of declarative, episodic memory, where she recalls specific images related to specific events and thus displays an example of classical conditioning as mentioned above. Chris’ issues with his memory has played a significant role in affecting Ana. His workplace accident and his resulting behavior has caused Kat and Ana a great amount of stress. • His anterograde amnesia, which is an impairment of memory retrieval from a long-term memory store (Talmi, Caplan, Richards & Moscovitch, 2015) caused him to forget a prior discussion he had with Kat about Ana (no TV if she misbehaves), as well as her broken arm. This would in turn impede his ability to process a negative punishment method of learning for Ana in case of misbehaviour. • His inability to recall events results in frustration and anger, emphasised by Kat when she notes how it is impacting on her and Ana. This behaviour is also directly impacting Ana as she is effectively modelling her behaviour.

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