AbortionsHave you ever thought of getting an abortion? Well don’t, and here is where people learn why. The issue with abortion is that some people feel that it should be legal everywhere, although they feel that others believe that abortion should not be legal except for when it comes to rape and incest. As defined by the 2018 Merriam-Webster dictionary, an abortion is, “the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus” Abortions have constantly been a contentious topic where two kinds of people show up.These people form groups that are referred to as pro-life supporters and pro-choice supporters. According to Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context, pro-life supporters claim that life begins at fertilization, therefore, abortion at any stage during pregnancy is murder. pro-life supporters believe that life is valuable and the fetus has the same rights as the mother. On the other hand Pro-choice supporters, claim that it is the woman’s right to choose what she does with her body. These pro-choice supporters claim that pro-lifer supporters are against the rights of women. Pro-life and pro-choice supporters have many differences in their opinions, specifically, when life begins for a fetus, affects abortions have on the mother, and how religion plays a major role in abortions. Although some people feel that abortion should be legal, abortion should not be legal unless it is from rape or incest.In order to fully understand the topic of abortion, an explanation is required. Abortions have been around for hundreds of years. However, in the mid- late 1800’s abortions in the United States became illegal. Due to the lack of medical education, abortions were dangerous. Abortions remained illegal, The American Medical Association stated that abortions were wrong and unsafe. Therefore, according to the National Abortion Federation, abortions were then made into a “doctors-only” surgery, because they could be performed legally only in order to save a woman’s life. It was not until 1973 that abortions were made legal, due to a Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade by saying that Americans’ right to privacy included the right of a girl to make a decision whether or not to possess kids, and the right of a woman and her doctor to make that decision without state interference. Today, there are restrictions in order for people to teach women about the consequences of getting an abortion and to get parental consent for kids under the age of 18. However, can not be denied to any person over the age of 18 because they are then classified as an adult. Dilation and extraction procedures are two procedures for abortion, however, is not legal in the United States because of the Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 1995 (“American Pregnancy Association”). Most pro-choice supporters say that this ban is a step in the wrong direction in the fight for women’s rights.Regardless, by the end of the pregnancy, the fetus is nearly developed, including it’s sense of pain, so this surgery is determined cruel. The opinion concerning when life begins has a major effect on a person’s views on whether they are for or against abortions. Pro-choice supporters, believe that the fetus is considered alive when it can does not have to rely on the mother for nutrients. Some of these pro-choice supporters believe that life begins around the 23rd week of pregnancy, because the brain has developed to enough that it can control parts of the body. According to “Abortion: When Does Human Life Begin?”, a bug has more characteristics of being alive than a fetus before 8 weeks of pregnancy. In other words, if a person kills an insect, such as a roach, they have just killed something that has more brain activity than a fetus prior to 8 weeks of pregnancy However, the murder of insects is accepted, whereas the termination of a pregnancy is not by pro-lifers.To counter what pro-life supporters believe regarding chromosomes proving that the fetus is human, pro-choice activists say that chromosomes aren’t the sole parts that verify somebody’s life. Again, “Abortion: When Does Human Life Begin?” states that human chromosomes are similar to the blueprints of a building. The blueprints give a guide on how the building is designed. However, the blueprints are nothing more than paper.Likewise, chromosomes give a genetic set up for human life, however they are not human. In contrast, pro-life supporters are opposed to abortions because pro-life supporters believe that human life begins at conception.The moment a man’s sperm comes into contact with a woman’s egg to form a child, life has begun. According to Facts on File News Services, “Abortion: When Does Human Life Begin?” issued in 2005, a motivating perspective that pro-life advocates have is that every living thing grows and develops. A child doesn’t react to things or look identical as he or she is going to once they are an adult. As the kid grows and develops, they become additional intelligent, mature, etc. due to the fact that they are living. The same concept applies to a child growing and developing in the womb. Although it does not look or act like a baby at the time of birth, the fetus like every other living thing, must have time to grow and develop. Only humans have 46 chromosomes, which the baby possesses from the time it is conceived until birth. They are more than a suggestion or blueprints to a building, they are what makes the fetus somebody within the womb. Therefore, the baby is a human which has life, not pre-human as pro-choice advocates believe. To prove that the baby is alive, several pro-life advocates support the necessary ultrasound needed before getting An abortion.Humans are the only living species that have forty-six chromosomes, which the baby possesses from the time it is conceived until birth. They are more than a guideline or blueprints to the future human, they are what makes the fetus a human in the first place. Therefore, the baby is a human which has life, not pre-human as pro-choice advocates believe. To prove that the baby is alive, many pro-life advocates support the mandatory ultrasound required prior to obtaining an abortion. According to Issues and Controversies Facts on File News Services, “Abortion: Mandatory Ultrasounds,” of May 2012, abortions are a very serious procedure that requires the woman and doctor to be well informed prior to obtaining one. For the woman, the ultrasound would provide a way for her to form a connection with her unborn child by actually seeing it and hearing its heart beat. It is hard to deny something is alive when it is moving and has a heart pumping blood to the rest of its body. The ultrasound would also provide a way for the doctor to become well informed concerning exactly how far along the pregnancy is to determine what type of abortion procedure would be the safest for the woman. In addition to the pro-life and the pro-choice views concerning when human life begins, a debatable topic of fetal homicide laws come into practice. According to Facts on File News Services, “Fetal Homicide Laws”, due to the Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2004 signed by President George Bush, it is a crime to injure or kill a fetus during the commission of a violent federal crime against a pregnant woman. I do not understand how the murder of a woman that is pregnant counts as the manslaughter of two people, instead of just one, when aborting a baby is not considered murder at all. However, supporters of this law, state that it is for women who are victims of violent crime. Therefore, it does not affect the rights of women to receive an abortion. On the other hand, critics of this law claim that it is jeopardizing the rights of women because it is giving pro-life activists a leg to stand on by the government recognizing the fetus as a life with rights. Rather than giving the fetus rights, they believe that only the mother’s legal status should be elevated. In addition to what supporters of the law claim, violent action resulting in a miscarriage or the death of both the mother and the baby involves “third-party criminal activity” whereas the standard abortion is only the mother’s choice (“Fetal Homicide Laws”). In order to end the confusion of why one termination of the pregnancy is considered murder and not the other, the fetus should be given rights in both situations. A criminal should not get away with murdering a woman’s baby, it should count as manslaughter. Likewise, a selfish woman should not get away with terminating her pregnancy because the baby never got the chance to defend itself. Nevertheless, fetal homicide laws are still very debatable because it demonstrates how the relevance of the fetus’ life is based off of nothing other than circumstances. Similarly, as stated in a “Public Opinion on Abortions” sidebar in 1995 from Facts on File News Services, in some cases, people believe abortions are okay and the mother’s choice, while in others they are wrong and immoral. Thus, proving the opinions of when life begins are primarily based on circumstances. The controversy over abortions does not stop concerning when the life of the baby begins. Pro-life and pro-choice supporters also do not see eye to eye concerning the affects an abortion has on the mother. The argument of both sides is clear. Pro-choice supporters say that abortions are simple procedures which cause no harm to the woman, cause relief, and freedom. There are some doctors that support these claims. According to “Abortion Safer than Childbirth, British Doctors’ Group Wants Women to Know” written by Delia Lloyd, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG) has written two recommendations to doctors, nurses, and any other medical professional who takes part in the woman’s pregnancy to follow. The RCOG wants medical professionals tomandatory, and childbirth. Since women must make an informed choice regarding whether they are going to have the abortion or not, then they need to be well informed of the dangers of childbirth as well. The second recommendation of this group is to tell women that abortions are not what trigger psychological problems, even though psychological problems are more evident in women who have had abortions. Thus the RCOG are encouraging abortions under false information. Since it has been scientifically proven that women who have had abortions demonstrate more psychological problems than women who have not had an abortion, women should not be told otherwise in order to sugarcoat the woman’s decision when considering to terminate the pregnancy. On the other hand, pro-life supporters claim that abortions cause regret, depression, are dangerous, and cause complications in later pregnancies. According to “Mayo Clinic Doctor Admits Abortions Hurt Women, Cause Premature Births” written by Steven Ertelt a Life News editor in 2009, a doctor from Mayo Clinic discussed how abortions are dangerous for women because they affect subsequent pregnancies. The obstetrician, Roger Harms, M.D., states that surgical abortions can cause the cervix to become weak as well as leave a lot of scar tissue in the uterus. Both of these factors would cause it to be very difficult for a woman to conceive again as well as be able to carry the baby to full term (Ertelt). So not only does the baby from the abortion reap havoc do to the mother’s decision, but future children of the woman could have life long complications. Another doctor by the name of Robbert van Oppenraaij, stated research has proven that a woman who has an abortion is twenty percent more likely to have a premature birth in her next pregnancy. Also stated in his research, there is a ninety-percent chance for her following pregnancy to result in a premature birth after two or more abortions. Brent Rooney, a researcher, also stated how because of the weak cervix, in future pregnancies if the baby is not carried to full term, the more premature the infant is, the higher it’s risk for cerebral palsy is (Ertelt). Therefore, abortions do not only cause the mother harm by potentially making it harder to conceive again, it also poses a risk to the woman’s future children, making it an extremely selfish act. In contrast to what pro-choice supporters believe, it is crucial for women to be informed of the psychological problems they will endure. Based on a survey performed by David Reardon, a Ph.D. at Elliot Institute referred to as “Psychological Reactions Reported After Abortion,” women who had at least one abortion as a teen reported that they dealt with nightmares, guilt, fear of punishment from God, thoughts about the child they could have had, didn’t have professional counseling, the memory of the abortion did not fade with time, and many more reactions. In addition, women who had more than one abortion reported experiencing relief afterwards, difficulty in maintaining personal relationships, fear of God, fear of another abortion, nervous breakdowns, feelings of anxiety, and much more. This proves how abortions do have an effect on women because it was a survey of women who have had abortions, not groups of people trying to fight for women’s rights. The common factor in all women who have either considered an abortion and followed through with it or decided not to is fear. Fear is the most common emotion to effect a woman after an abortion as well as before one. Women who have considered an abortion but didn’t do it fear childbirth, their finances, how they are going to raise a child, judgment from others if they are unmarried, and many other things. On the other hand, women who have followed through with an abortion fear punishment from God for what they have done, their terminated baby, the unknown, the abortion procedure safety and future complications in other pregnancies, and much more. In some cases, the doctors have a large part in initiating fear into women. My grandmother, who is pro-life, was told by her doctor she needed to have an abortion for her safety. At the time, she was pregnant with my uncle, her fourth child, and was scared out of her mind. Because of her beliefs, she did not go through with the abortion. However, fear haunted her because of what the doctor had told her. Regardless of what the doctors said, she did not have any abnormal complications in her pregnancy that would have required an abortion in the first place, and my uncle was born healthy and normal. If she would have listened to the doctor, she would have missed out on another blessing which now has three children of his own. Last, pro-life and pro-choice activists differ in their opinions concerning how politics and religion play a role in abortions. Generally, republican leaders and supporters are more conservative, thus making them pro-life. Whereas democrat leaders and supporters are usually more liberal and believe in pro-choice. Recently, there was a huge election in the United States between democrat candidate Barack Obama and republican candidate Mitt Romney. One major factor that influenced the American people who to vote for were the candidate’s views on abortions. There are also a numerous amount of laws which affect abortions. Although the Roe vs. Wade Supreme Court case made it to where any woman could obtain an abortion legally, minors must receive parental consent in many states throughout the United States. According to Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context, “Abortion: Parental Consent,” the laws are intended to foster parent-child relationships, protect the rights of parents, and deter young women from obtaining abortions or becoming pregnant in the first place. However, the laws have been proven to have very little effect on the teens’ decision to have an abortion. Since only some states require parental consent, teenagers go through desperate measures by traveling to different states in order to obtain an abortion without their parents knowing about it. Many medical professionals are against parental consent laws because they believe that the teens should have the right to confidential health care just like someone who is over the age of eighteen. In addition to parental consent laws, there is a law concerning partial-birth abortions. The Partial-Birth abortion Ban Act of 2003 was signed into action by President George Bush. This law bans abortions during the third trimester known as dilation and extraction. According to the database, Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context, “Abortions: Late Term/Partial-Birth,” pro-choice activists are very happy with the partial-birth ban. It is the first step to banning all forms of abortions. However, pro-choice activists see this ban as a major threat to the rights of women. Although partial-birth abortions only account for 1.3 percent of the total number of abortions performed in the United States, it is a step toward success for anti-abortionists and a step back for pro-abortionists. This ban supports my beliefs concerning the immorality of abortions, especially in such a developed baby. Religion also plays a significant role in abortions. Pro-choice advocates tend to contradict pro-life Christian beliefs, based on “Abortion: When Does Human Life Begin?,” by stating when Genesis chapter one verse twenty-seven talks about humans being created in the image of God, it isn’t referring to the physical characteristics such as our appearance or biological make-up. Instead, it is referring to our abilities to love others, reason, and self-awareness, all which are not characteristics that a fetus. On the other hand, although not every pro-life advocate is a Christian, many Christians are pro-life. They base their beliefs concerning abortions on certain scriptures found in the Bible. In Psalm chapter 139 and verse thirteen it says, “For you created my inmost being; you knit me together in my mother’s womb.” This verse is from the point of view of a psalmist, David, who is talking to God. David was a man after God’s own heart, therefore can be inferred to have had a lot of God’s wisdom and understanding. David points out that God created us and knew everything about us from the time we were in our mother’s womb. Also in Jeremiah chapter twenty-nine verse eleven it says, ““For I know the thoughts I have for you” declares the Lord “plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.”” Therefore, Christians are against abortions because God has a plan for that infant from the time it is conceived. In addition, in Exodus chapter twenty verse thirteen it states, “You shall not murder.” Since many pro-life, Christian activists believe that life begins at conception, an abortion which is ending the life of the fetus, is considered murder. Because the Bible says not to murder, then abortions should not take place according to these supporters. Thus, there are many differences of opinion concerning abortions. I believe that it is more than a choice to be made, but a child’s life to be saved. I am for the rights of women and believe that they should have control over their bodies, however I am also for the rights of the unborn baby. They have just as much of a right to live as any other human being. There are other options for women to consider rather than abortions. For instance, adoption is a wonderful choice. A couple that may be unable to conceive a child of their own, or just want to adopt, would then have that opportunity to be blessed with a little miracle.