CHAPTER ONE10 IntroductionProsopis juliflora colonizes different areas in Somaliland and in many

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE1.0 IntroductionProsopis juliflora colonizes different areas in Somaliland and in many Countries in the world and especially along dry river banks and watering points where it prevents access to the water resources. Furthermore it produces relatively long and hard thorns which pierce effectively the feet/hooves of trumping animals and humans. The tree is evergreen throughout the year even during dry periods and produces large amounts of hard seeds in long pods. The vegetative parts of the plant such as the leaves and twigs are not ingested by the animals. In addition, the pods are not also palatable to most browsing and grazing animals until they are mature -dried. In general the tree has no much domestic uses to become popular therefore it is perceived as a menace (weed). In Somaliland the community makes little or no use of the different parts of the tree including the pods ( Maundu et al., 2017).1.1 Objective of the Study1. To determine the nutrient content of Prosopis pods harvested from different parts of Maroodi-Jeeh region.2. To determine the effect of maturity of pods on the nutrient content 1.2 Significance of the Study In Somaliland animals are reared in an extensive system. This implies that animals depend on grazing of communally owned rangelands for feed. 9088 million of goats, 9202 millions of sheep,1739 million of camels and 419 million of cattle are found in Somaliland (ministry of planning & development 2014).However; Somaliland experiences frequent droughts (no rain) in which severe shortage of feed for animals occur. The drought leads to loss of production especially milk production, emaciation of animals and even death of large numbers of the national herd and usually famine ensues. This situation is aggravated by overgrazing and irrational land-use practices. Animals are rarely or never supported with supplementary feeds except very few agro pastoral areas. This is because the system of production is nomadic pastoralism. Livestock employ directly and indirectly 65% of the population and constitute the only source of foreign currency earnings 85% and account for 28.40% of gross domestic product (GDP) (ministry of planning and development20014) apart from being the source of protein for the community. This necessitates the search for potential sources of animal feed to mitigate the impact of drought on animals and to support the pastoralist livelihood and the national economy. Therefore this research intends to make comparison on the nutritional contents of the different stages of prosopis pods. To our knowledge this type of research has not been carried out in Somaliland. 1.0 1.1 Botanical specifications of Prosopis JulifloraFourty-four types of the genus prosopis grow in the arid and semi -arid regions of Africa and eastern Asia, North and South America.prosopis is common woody leguminous tree of the genus prosopis which exists either in the form of a 2m tall shrub or as a 15m tall tree with 1m diameter trunk.the pods of Prospis comprises two main parts pericarp and exocar(outer covering relatively smooth and thin. (Reza Zolfaghar, 2015).There has been a large amount attention over latest years to discover different non-conventional feedstuffs because products from agriculture depends on rain ,which is not all the time reliable for the reason that of increasing costs for conventional feed ingredients (King`ori, Odero-Waitituh, & Guliye, 2011).Prosopis juliflora pods are such lesser- known and under-utilized feed resources in Somaliland.These drought situations, exacerbated by weather alteration will compel pastoral communities to search for another plants species as forages (Syomiti, Maranga, Obwoyere, Gebru, & Dana, 2014).Earlier studies acknowledged that prosopis pods can be helpful in livestock feeding. prosopis juliflora has a Crude Protein (CP) content of 16-22% depends on environmental situation (Mwangi and Shallow, 2008; Maundu et al., 2017).The protein level of prosopis is higher than maize protein content and carbohydrate content of is one of the hardy nitrogen fixing plants that are essential for increasing soil fertility. The pods of prosopis juliflora were used for feed for cattle, goats, sheep, camels, horses and Poultry (Mwangi and Shallow, 2008; Maundu et al., 2017).If the knowledge about utilization of prosopis is expanded.Prosopis species can cover a lot of the needs of populations living in dry lands of the globe, For instance, a feeding trial in India on livestock using rations containing up to 45% of Prosopis species components yielded a 1.5% of cattle body weight with satisfactory live weight gains (Syomiti et al., 2014).Hand picking is the only way prosopis pods can be collected by the herders. Pods may be stored for a number of years but are very prone to insect infestation (Speedy,1984), requiring fumigation of the storage houses with bisulphide or phosgine. Pods have long been used as feed for cattle, horses, sheep and goats at Southeast Asia .Only mature pods are used as feed, as the green pods are bitter or contain noxious substances and have little feed value. Stock poisonings recorded from pods eaten after contact to rain water (Speedy,adrew)2.2 Pod CharacteristicsDue to time and logistics limitations it was not possible to make characterization of pods. However, other researchers in similar climatic conditions of Somaliland have conducted pod characterization and citation of their work is hereby quoted.There is a high variability in pod size and form as the pod sizes vary from 9cm to 29 cm but the average size ranges from 12 to 25 cm in length, 9-17 mm in width, 4-8 mm in thickness, and strip to 2 cm long. Most of the pods are straight with incurved apexes newly matured P. juliflora pods are from light -yellow (in winter), straw (in summer) to light brown in color. Seeds are enclosed in a defensive four-sided figure shaped septum, which is enclosed in a sugary, thin, dry yellow pulp containing 20-30% sucrose (Meulen, 2000). As Muelen (2000) described the structure of P.Juliflora that seed is ellipsoid in curve and smooth-textured. 2.3Pod production There is great variation in pod harvesting 5 to 40kg/tree. this depends upon rainfall (climate) and the type of soil (of the area).The average yield of pods per tree has been found to be 18.95 kg/tree/year, with the most important fruiting seasons being winter and summer but maximum yields were obtained during the later season. The P. juliflora pods offer potentially source of livestock feed. The P.juliflora trees in general start bearing pods 3 years after plantation in a cultivated area. Pod production, in the first years of its life, is relatively very poor, however it increases with age(Mwangi & Swallow, 2005). Figure2.1prosopis pods in three different stages(Meulen, 2000) reported that The greatest mean pod production had a range of 3.2 to 12.2 kg/tree.73kg of pods harvested from a single 8.5 m tall tree there is an huge Possibility for genetic Progress in pod excellence. The mean pod making per attainment ranged from 7.1 kg to 10.0 kg/tree for 25 accessions .However, pod production estimations have been carried out in Somaliland. This is because the general public is unaware of its vast and different uses.2.4Pod storage:Storage of pods and disease diagnosis are beyond the scope of this research paper.but other results regarding this issue is are hereby elucidated.(Meulen, 2000) mentioned that The average length of healthy pods was 13.86 cm and seeds per 10 pods were 248.85 gm. 34.35% pods and 3.91 % of seeds were found infested with the insect. He also recorded that the Caryedon serratus Olivier causes harsh injury to pods as well as seeds of P. juliflora plant.100 healthy seeds weighed 3.30 gm, whereas, 100 infected seeds weighed 2.19 gm, thus pest infestation caused 35.06% loss in seed-weight and 3.04% in seed-biomass. The uncooked pods collected from the field are instantly dehydrated either under the sun or in the forced air draft oven, then crushed to manufacture suitable product, which can be then stored securely at dry place.2.5 Prosopis Juliflora in east AfricaIn 1973 a programme of sand dunes management started in Marka and Shalanbood about 5900 of prosospis cultivated as stabilization (Mwangi & Swallow, 2005).(AFRICARE,1983) stated the overview of prosopis juliflora in somalia as a part of a replanting project for sand dune steading in a refugee impacted areas in Hiran region of centeral somalia .2.6 Prosopis Juliflora in Somaliland The introduction of Prosopis juliflora into Somaliland dates back to (Mooney 1959 ). Mooney was a forest officer to the British protectorate.Mooney established few experimental plots at Sheikh, Gaan-Libax, Lafarug, Berbera and Manjassah(Agricultural & Group, 2006).After Mooney’s establishment of plots in 1970s, Prosopis Juliflora has forcefully invaded farmlands and rangelands as well. The tree is recognized locally (Garaanwa) as the “unidentified one, because the plant is not native to Somaliland. The objective for its introduction into this country was to stabilize the moving sand-dunes at the coastal areas of Aden. The mobile dunes were threatening the convenience of coastal areas. However its spread was so slow before The Somali civil war of 1991, after which it has attained a momentum to spread itself unhindered. Therefore the name Garanwaa is coined by Somali refugees who came back to Somaliland in the early 1990s from refugee camps in Ethiopia to discover that this extraordinary plant has extended quickly and extensively across their homeland suppressing native vegetation. Prosopis has a harshly unconstructive crash on the livelihoods of farmers and pastoralists (IFAD & PENHA, 2015). Prosopis Chilensis had exposed a very poor development result under harsh circumstances, while its sister P.Juliflora adapted into harsh coastal climate (Ahmed, 2006). In marodijeh-region the primary places in which this plant was sown include refugee camps established aftermath the Ogaden War of 1977. seeds stored in temporary nurseries within those camps were emptied from their sacks and the seeds were dispersed by runoff and animals therefore they have germinated spontaneously relatively large areas (Ahmed, 2006). Areas in and around the villages including the farmlands were dominated by Prosopis Juliflora. One of Such camps (Biyo-xudheenka) locate eastern margin of Hargeisa. It is still controversial whether Prosopis is beneficial or harmful for the Somaliland community. It is largely considered an ineffective wild plant. In view of this Members of the community are looking for ways to eliminate it from their environment while others are just beginning to understand few benefits associated with this plant. This is because prosopis is currently used as a wind breaker by some farmers while others use its pods for animal feed especially during the periods of severe shortage of forages. However it is not widely used as feed for animals because the thickets are sporadically established and are very distant from one another. Other limiting factors include hard coated seeds. Local experienced farmers consider Prosopis juliflora as a high-quality option for improving the fertility of badly degraded fields and marginal soils as well. , where the spread will not get out of control (Somali Agricultural & technical Group, 2006).2.7 Pharmacological (Medicinal) Activities of ProsopisIn general Prosopis Juliflora immature leaves of Prosopis Juliflora successfully inhibited the growth of the entire tested bacteria (Preeti, Avatar, & Mala, 2015).The test for Prosopis. Juliflora on E.coli, and Klebsiella(Gramm Negative Bacteria),and staphylococcus aureus,and Streptococcus(Gramm positive Bacteria) showed inhibition of growth of the entire tested bacteria. The tests on Staphylococcus aurous, Streptococcus and Bacillus had superior feeling than E. coli and Klebsiella (Preeti et al., 2015). During Very old times, Prosopis was significant plant as it has been used mainly for therapeutic purposes such as chewing gum and smoke from dry leaves and seeds of Prosopis were used for anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic,anti-cancer, and anti-microbial, purposes (Preeti et al., 2015).2.8 Nutritional value julifloraP.juliflora pods are perfect for the manufacture of animal feed on a large level and suggested that the pods can be used as supplement concentrate food by as much as 30% of the total feed.Prosopis pods have a high protein, a high fiber part, a high sugar fraction in dry stage. The Chemical composition of Prosopis Juliflora has been reported as containing Crude protein 16.2%,Crude fiber 22%, Ether Extraction 3.5%,Ash 4.5% and NFE 54.1%.The Protein contained almost all the necessary amino acids with relatively higher content of Polyunsaturated fatty acids(King`ori et al., 2011).?Previous studies conducted in Ecuador have shown that soluble sugars from P. juliflora pods comprise 12% fructose, 75% sucrose, 5% glucose, 5% inositol and 1% raffinose. the sugar substances of P. juliflora pods is dissimilar by varying from 13 to 20% according to age of the plant, showing a hard environmental effect on pod content (Choge et al., 2007) .(Choge et al., 2007) Reported that all the essential amino acids are present in Prosopis Juliflora which fulfill the requirements of the FAO/WHO ‘standard protein’ thus indicating an acceptable nutritional quality of the protein, Methionine and cysteine are the limiting amino acids. The fat content of P.Juliflora is low.Nearby analysis of complete Prosopis juliflora (PJ) pods (%)Species Location Dry matter Crude Protein Crude Fibre Ether extract AshP.Juliflora Peru 82.0 9.1 18.4 0.4 5.8P.Juliflora Brazil 87.4 7.1 12.3 1.1 3.3P.Juliflora India 88.5 12.2 28.0 1.3 1.4P.Juliflora Mexico 90.1 16.2 23.4 3.5 6.0P.Juliflora Niger 92.6 12.9 18 4.0 4.5P.Juliflora Kenya ……. 16 22 3.4 4.5P.Juliflora S.Afrika ……. 13.9 27.7 3.0 4.8From : Choge et al (2007)2.9 Prosopis Juliflora as animal feed.Mature pods of Prosopis fall on to the ground and are keenly consumed by all ruminant species. It produces dry pods twice a year. Animals do not ingest leaves and twigs. Prosopis is used as animal feed for cattle, sheep, camel, buffalo, rabbits, poultry and rats especially in South America, Africa and India (Sawal,R K,Ratan,1993).20% in diet of prosopis juliflora did not affect the feed intake in cattle (Sawal, 1993). Grinding and drying of mesquite pods increased voluntary intake and complete utilization in ruminants. Replacement of sorghum with 60% of mesquite pods did not influence the feed intake in sheep (Sawal, 1993)Pods of prosopis can be used as the only feed supplement during flushing and early Lactation to improve production performance of sheep,goat and cattle,because it contain high levels of energy (75% TDN) and moderate levels of protein (12% CP)(Sawal, R. K,1993). Since prosopis has high carbohydrate content and rational protein value. This implies that, pods of prosopis can enhance in feed consumption and digestibility by livestock. When pods is ground and changed into flour the animals can feed smoothly, thus increases the digestibility and suitability to animals).The higher sugar content in the pods of mesquite altered the bacterial flora in the rumen to such an extent that the animals could no longer digest cellulose or synthesize vitamins B efficiently. Also all the cows fed mesquite pods developed symptoms of jaw and tongue trouble which after extensive consumption caused the death of animals (Reza,1984) 2.10 Anti-Nutritional factors{Sawal1993} reported that only mature pods should be fed animals, because green pods contains some anti-nutritional factors.Phytate is known to reduce the bioavailability of a quantity of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper and manganese to animals. Similarly using of green immature pods caused weight loss, and reduced appetite loss, weakness, alopecia, nervous symptoms, fever, diarrhea, dryness and death of cattle. Some cyanide poisoning was seen in cattle eating green pods of the mesquite tree. Whereas Abedelnoor,(2009) reported that they did not see any toxic effect after providing 5.5kg sugar cane with 3.2kg mesquite pods per cattle.