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FACULTY OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE ANDPOLICY STUDIESPAD104: INTRODUCTION TO MALAYSIAN PUBLIC POLICY(POLICY BRIEF REPORT)TITLE:THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY AND TEENAGERSGROUP MEMBERS NAME:AHMAD RUSYAIDI BIN BAHRI(2019398273)CASSANDRA RACHEL ROBERT(2017657228)Summary:Tobacco industry pose problem among the teenagers age between 13 to 17 years old. First, most cigarettes or tobacco contain highly addictive drug. Tobacco also contain nicotine. Nicotine is especially harmful to young people as it can harm the developing adolescent brains of the young people who use smoke regular cigarettes. Second, the long term uses of cigarettes or tobacco will affect the teenagers lung as it contains harmful substances such as aerosol, nicotine and many more. The aerosol that users inhale not only expose themselves but will also affect the bystanders to harmful substances. Third, smoking will decrease the life expectancy of the society including the youth, not only that smoking is also a well-known cause of heart disease, stroke and cancers to the smoker.This paper examines knowledge of the health risk of smoking to the teenagers.RecommendationsTobacco use is one of the leading cause of preventable death in the world, resulting in approximately 5 million deaths per year. Various studies have shown that smoking behavior is learned and begins during adolescence.Prompt action is needed in order to reduce the number of youth and adolescents who begin smoking and action is also needed to prevent the cause of morbidity and mortality in Malaysia as the tobacco use among the youth is one of the major reasons youths alive today will die prematurely. Malaysian government can make initiatives or recommendations such as creating a smoking centre rehab for youths who smoke. Some of the programme for the smoking centre rehab that can be done by the government is by providing activities like social works. Social work is a community service, some of the social work can be done by the government to youths who smoke is provide voluntary works such as helping the homeless, cleaning the environment, organize a charity event and many more activities can be initiate. By recommending this policy it will help the youth to realize and open their minds that smoking doesn’t give any positive impacts nor benefits to them, and by doing the social works as a punishment for smoking will probably helps the youth to realize that they should live their life the fullest and in a positive ways rather than ruining themselves by consuming things that will affect their health.Other than that, Malaysian government need to ensure the enforcement and implementation of fined to the underage smokers. As an example to this initiatives, the government can fined the parents and put the child in jail for smoking, as their child is underage but is a regular smokers. Parents are fined by the government because parents play a crucial role in youth cigarette use prevention and uptake. It is their responsibility because when parental influence is taken seriously as parental behaviour and attitude together, it plays more important role than the peer influence in smoking among teenagers. This prevention programme should focus more efforts toward the parent-child relationship, and not aim the adolescent in school.Last recommendation can be implement by the government is where the government can reward the public for helping to report on illegal activities or transactions between minors and the premises which involves in selling of tobacco to underage. The society or the person who want to make report regarding this issues, he or she should report the issues directly to the person who is responsible in handling this kind of case, such as the Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs Malaysia (KPDNKK). Therefore, by doing this the (KPDNKK) can identify the premises and the youth involved and can take action towards them for breaching the law. The cooperation of the public or the society also play an important roles in combating smoking among the youth. The report can be accepted in form of taking footage video of the illegal activities and transaction regarding issue selling tobacco to underage person between minors and the premises. Other than that, the person who want to report can be in the form of pictures which can become the valid prove to (KPFNKK), so that they can take action to those involved.IntroductionSmoking is known as one of the major established threat playing a definite role in destroying youth, which are the future foundation for any generation. Cigarette smoking is a habit that kills approximately million of people per year but it is surprisingly being picked up by myriad amount of the youngsters every day. The number of young smokers have been increased in most Malaysian middle schools and high schools. It is sad to see that nowadays smoking becomes a growing trend in the youth community. The main reasons that cause many teenagers to start smoking is because of the peer-pressure, image projection, rebellion, and as well as adult negative trait aspirations. The responsibilities not only lies on the government but also on parents and guardians of the adolescents. The health care setup at various levels of care and on general population also plays important roles in tackling this issue. Despite of stringent steps taken there are loopholes in the system providing these children and adolescents easy access to tobacco. Youth who begin smoking pass through various stages, each influenced by a variety of factors, before becoming a daily smoker. At stage 1 is known as a Pre-contemplation and preparation stage. This is where the Youth in this stage have never smoked before and most likely will have minimal desires to begin smoking as adolescents in this stage are likely not affected to the effects of social pressures for smoking or they do not view smoking in a positive light.Stage 2 is known as Contemplation and Preparation stage. In this stage,the adolescents beliefs about smoking are beginning to change as they begin to contemplate smoking. Youth will often develop attitudes or envisage what smoking will be like before engaging initiating smoking. These kind of attitudes towards smoking may often be negative, but are not really impact the adolescent because of either positive media messages or role models as example their parents who are also smokers. Adolescents in this stage begin to consider the function of smoking, they feel like smoking can reduce social anxiety,regulate emotions and they also think that smoking will make them look cooler and independent.Stage 3 is Initiation stage. This is the stage consists of an adolescent trying to smoke the cigarette. Typically, this happened because of negative influences that motivating this negative behaviour of the adolescent. As an example the main causes for this issue in this stage is that there are stronger peer or familial influences motivating them to initial this behavior. Other causes is because the adolescents want to improve their self-image, by doing or trying to smoke, they think that they will be receiving minimal approval from their desired peers further increasing the chances of initiation.Stage 4 is Experimentation stage. During this stage, there will be a steady increase in the frequency of cigarette use. In this stage, there is an imbalance view between positive and negative values placed on cigarettes, such that an adolescent adopts increasingly positive views on cigarette smoking. An adolescent smoker in this stage is not guaranteed to be a regular smoker and they still has the option of quitting smoking. Smokers in this category are likely to become regular smokers.Stage 5 is Regular Smoking stage. Smoking throughout this stage becomes more regular as they are starting to get addicted with cigarettes. Regular smoking in youth usually smoking for social gatherings or smoking on a majority of weekdays. Adolescents in this category are not yet considered as smoking daily.The last stage is stage 6, this is where the youth Established daily smoking.But in this stage not all of the adolescent smokers from the previous stage move to this stage. Adolescent smokers in this stage may begin to experience addictive symptoms associated with nicotine dependence such as strong cravings of the cigarettes.The become addicted to smoke daily. At this point, a combination of physiological and biological factors are the main cause of the smoking behavior as part of the adolescent’s self-regulation.The other causes of the problem to arise is based on the Psycho-social Factors. Certain interpersonal social factors example adolescents who are involved in negative behaviors such as fighting, stealing, and using other drugs are more likely to associated with cigarette smoking. Other than that, parents negative influence example parents whose smoked cigarettes will highly effect on a child’s smoking behavior. The time span in which a child is exposed to parental smoking has also been associated with increased risk of smoking. Notably, the effect of parental smoking can differ by a few important factors, the effects of the father smoking depended on if the father lived at home with the adolescent, and if so there will be a greater effect of parental smoking on youth under the age of 13. Extending beyond parents, siblings also influence on adolescent smoking. Example to this, adolescents with an older sibling who smoked were more likely begin smoking as they are influence by their siblings. An adolescent’s home environment may also influence the perceptions they have about cigarette use.Numerous health consequences or effects for cigarette smoking have been thoroughly documented. The major and top negative health causes that have been causally linked to Cigarette smoking is smokers might have lung cancers, not only that smokers might also suffer upper digestive tract cancer. Other chronic diseases a heavy smoker have to face is diabetes, coronary heart diseases, pneumonia, and overall poorer immune function. Other than that, an adolescent smokers exhibited delayed growth in lung function, as well as mild airway obstruction. Some of the early signs of these effects can often be found in adolescent smoker when the resting heart rate of young adult smokers is estimated to beat two to three minutes faster than the non-young adult smokers. Youth smokers are likely to suffer greater shortness of breath and build up phlegm.The only ways to reduce and decrease the consumption of tobacco among the youth is through laws and policy implementation regarding control of tobacco product regulation. Tobacco control laws passed at the national and state level have reduced the opportunities for the adolescents in accessing cigarettes, while prevention programs done by the government regarding issues about prevention smoking among youth campaign,advocacy and many more programme at the school level have proven to be more less effective. The BodyThis policy brief from the control of Tobacco product regulations 2004 discusses on declaration of non smoking area. The declaration of Non-Smoking area 2015 identifies an additional area that should be smoke free as declares by the ministers. It also describes about the places specified in the schedule as a non-smoking area which are stated in regulation 22 of Control of Tobacco Product Regulations 2004. This policy brief also analyse the reasons why some of the area in Malaysia should be smoke free, before starting to implement or exercise the powers.This control of Tobacco Product(Amendment Regulations 2015) policy brief discusses about regulation 8A of the principal regulations is amended (a) by substituting for sub-regulation (1) Every manufacturer or importer of tobacco product shall submit an application in writing to the director regarding retail selling price of the tobacco product. This application should also be made every time if there is a change to the retail selling price of any tobacco product occurs. (b) by delegating sub-regulation(2). (c) By substituting for sub-regulation(1), where every manufacturer or importer shall submit application in writing to the director regarding the retail price referred in the sub regulation (1) within seven days of an imposition or any change occurs in exercising the duty or any other tax on the tobacco product. It then also discusses various options for policy makers to consider and the impact of any person who contravenes the sub regulation policy who commits an offence shall, on conviction liable to a fine which not exceeding ten thousand ringgit or an imprisonment not exceeding two years , or both of it will be applied to the manufacturer or the importer of tobacco product.This policy brief “ control of Tobacco product (Amendment) Regulations 2017 discusses about the ninth schedule regulation 2 FOOD ACT 1983 Control of Tobacco Product Regulations 2004. The list of laws included in this regulations firstly it discuss about the National Forestry(Adoption) Enactment 1985 [Enactment No.11 0f 1985 Kelantan],National Forestry(Adoption) Enactment 1987 [Enactment No.1 0f 1988 Perlis], and discuss about Perak State Parks Corporation Enactment 2001 [ Enacment No.10 of 2001 Perak]. The amendment of regulation 2 stated that the control of Tobacco Product regulations 2004 (a) the following definition stated the “public park” means a structure including a hide that is built for the purpose of observing the flora and fauna in a national park or state park area; (b) “Public Park” means an open area with purposes for leisure and recreational containing soft and hard landscapes such as pedestrian path, playing field, game court and playground. Policy ImplicationsIntervention school based on the National Tobacco Control Programme is not effective in promoting smoking cessation awareness among the teenagers. This is because due to the inefficiency content of the message have lack of exposure regarding the programme and poor execution made for the programme. The doctors and nurses in Malaysia does not really emphasis the danger of smoking to the adolescents. So there is a need to implement more comprehensive smoke-free legislation nationality across Malaysia especially the National Policy on tobacco control , this will enables an inter-ministerial approach. Some of the strategies can be taken is equip the students with skills on way how to deal with stressful situations and instil doing healthy lifestyle. Other than that, knowledge about smoking hazardous should also included in education programme ,this is to help reduce initiation of smoking among youth.Second policy implications is on the policy graphic health warning areas on cigarette packs. Evidences prove comprehensive warnings regarding the cigarette packaging promote cessations was found to be effective in teenage smokers however health warning message on cigarette packs appear to be more ineffective but health warning messages on cigarette packs managed to increase the awareness of the risks of smoking elicit stronger in terms of behavioral responses, In addition to this,thinking about the health risks and also by reading the warnings actually added extra predictive capacity. References HYPERLINK "https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/malaysia/laws" https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/malaysia/laws HYPERLINK "https://nhm.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=2&sublinkid=1052&lid=607" https://nhm.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=2&sublinkid=1052&lid=607 HYPERLINK "https://tobaccoinduceddiseases.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12971-016-0108-5" https://tobaccoinduceddiseases.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12971-016-0108-5 HYPERLINK "http://www.tobaccoinduceddiseases.org/Source-of-cigarettes-among-youth-smokers-in-Malaysia-nFindings-from-the-tobacco-and,96297,0,2.html" http://www.tobaccoinduceddiseases.org/Source-of-cigarettes-among-youth-smokers-in-Malaysia-nFindings-from-the-tobacco-and,96297,0,2.html

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