I Introduction In the history of human society domestication has

I. Introduction In the history of human society, domestication has always been a process of the agricultural development. We are getting away from foraging in the wild, but we made plants and animals more and more rely on us. Apple, as one of the most important fruit crops that native grows in the Old World, is now one of the most popular fruit choices in the New World and any other parts of the world. In the supermarket, from Red Delicious to Granny Smith, from apple juice to apple source, we have so many different verities and different apple products. When we look at those apples, we may have these questions: why only apples have so many verities? Where did they come from? What makes them so big and so colorful? What will be their roles in our human society? In this paper, we are going to discuss these questions and sort out the history of apples. II. Origins There is still no proved or all agreed conclusion of the exact origin of apples. But it can be sure that all the modern apples are mainly the hybrids of Malus sieversii. Some researchers believe that apple was first cultivated and planted by Romans and the fruits origin can be traced to southwestern Asia. (Mabberley, 2001) The Silk Road connects east and west, communicates the culture as well as the commercial. On this ancient trade route, travelers may bring apples and other food to feed themselves as well as their animals. The seeds were possible left on the road and got hybrid. While on the other hands, some believe that Apple’s originated in Kazakhstan in south-central Asia in the 13th century BCE. Ramos is the second Egyptian Pharaoh ordered for apples to be cultivated in the Nile Delta Region (Duan, 2017). Further, apples were also cultivated across the Rhine Valley and around 35 different types of apples were cultivated by the end of the 1st century CE. III. Development Early wild apples are small and too bite or sour to eat. However, after generations of cultivation and hybridization, we now can enjoy the sweetness of this attractive fruit. The cultivated apple is called Malus domestica, belongs to the Rose Family (2018). Throughout the history of its cultivation, at least 10000 apple cultivars were developed, many of them are now lost due to the old practice of seed propagation. There are still about 100 cultivars growing commercially but only 10 of them are the most popular varieties in the U.S. Antiquity Apples were probably improved through selection over thousands of years by early farmers. The evidence found by historians is as early as 6500 B.C proved the presence of editable apples (Watson, 2009). At Jericho in the Jordan Valley, scientists found the remains of apples. In 323 B.C, Theophrastus has already described six varieties of apples. He talked about the importance of budding, grafting, and what is necessary for general trees to optimize their production. He also pointed out that seeds almost always produce trees of inferior quality fruit. In 100 B.C, the excellent keeping qualities of apples makes it possible to store apples for winter. When the English colonists came to the U.S. in 1600s, they only found the crabapple variety. They shipped apples from England to the U.S and immediately stated planting apple orchards. A man named William Blackstone who brought a bag of apple seeds along with him from Europe into Massachusetts USA (Synan,2013). He is known to have planted apple orchards on Beacon Hill in Boston as well as Rhode Island. In 1632, the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony John Winthrop was gifted the Conant’s Island in Boston Harbor in response to this generous gift, John promised to plant an apple orchard on the island and pledged to give 1/5 of the fruits produced every year to the governor whoever he would be. By the 1640s, apple orchards were well-established across the United States. The first commercial apple tree nursery called William Price nursery was opened by Robert Prince in 1737 in the US, this nursery consisted of exotic verities of plants and trees brought from across the globe and was prized nursery in 1775, the British’s time of the Revolutionary War who occupied the Long Island New York prized the nursery so much that they even went forward and appointed an armed guard to protect it.19th centuryIn the late 19th century, it is often referred to as the golden years of apple growing in the United State (Calhoun, 1995). Apples ripened in summer and they can be preserved for the whole winter for delicious apple ciders. Many family started to plant apple trees for their family use. Not only apples, many other fruits such as pears were also experienced such a golden time. Lots of fruit trees including apple trees were clonally propagated and provided American families high-quality fruits that deserve their names. An 1845 United States apples nursery catalogue sold 350 of the “best”” cultivars

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